Haarlem, Noord-Holland, Netherlands

🇳🇱 Haarlem is a city and municipality in the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of North Holland. Haarlem is situated at the northern edge of the Randstad, one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe; it is also part of the Amsterdam metropolitan area.

Haarlem was granted city status or stadsrechten in 1245, although the first city walls were not built until 1270. The modern city encompasses the former municipality of Schoten as well as parts that previously belonged to Bloemendaal and Heemstede. Apart from the city, the municipality of Haarlem also includes the western part of the village of Spaarndam. Newer sections of Spaarndam lie within the neighbouring municipality of Haarlemmermeer.

Haarlem is located on the river Spaarne, giving it its nickname 'Spaarnestad' (Spaarne city). It is situated about 20 km (12 mi) west of Amsterdam and near the coastal dunes. Haarlem has been the historical centre of the tulip bulb-growing district for centuries and bears its other nickname 'Bloemenstad' (flower city) for this reason.

Haarlem has a rich history dating back to pre-medieval times, as it lies on a thin strip of land above sea level known as the strandwal (beach ridge), which connects Leiden to Alkmaar. The people on this narrow strip of land struggled against the waters of the North Sea from the west, and the waters of the IJ and the Haarlem Lake from the east. Haarlem became wealthy with toll revenues that it collected from ships and travellers moving on this busy north–south route.

As shipping became increasingly important economically, the city of Amsterdam became the main Dutch city of North Holland during the Dutch Golden Age. The town of Halfweg became a suburb, and Haarlem became a quiet bedroom community, and for this reason Haarlem still has many of its central medieval buildings intact. Nowadays many of them are on the Dutch Heritage register known as Rijksmonuments. The list of Rijksmonuments in Haarlem gives an overview of these per neighbourhood, with the majority in the old city centre.

Beer brewing Beer brewing was a very important industry in Haarlem. Until the 16th century the water for the beer was taken from the canals in the city. These were, through the Spaarne and the IJ, connected to seawater. However, the water in the canals was getting more and more polluted, and no longer suitable for brewing beer. A place 1.5 km (0.9 mi) south-west of the city was then used to take fresh water in.

However, the quality of that water was not good enough either. From the 17th century a canal (Santvaert) was used to transport water from the dunes to the city. The water was transported in barrels on ships. The location where the water was taken is called the Brouwerskolkje, and the canal to there still exists, and is now called the Brewers' Canal (Brouwersvaart).

Haarlem was a major beer producer in the Netherlands. The majority of the beer it produced was consumed in North Holland. During the Spanish siege there were about 50 brewing companies in the city; while 45 years later in 1620 the city numbered about one hundred breweries.

There was another epidemic of the Black Death in 1657, which took a heavy toll in the six months it ravaged the city. From the end of the 17th century the economic situation in the city turned sour, for a long time. In 1752 there were only seven beer breweries left, and in 1820 no breweries were registered in the city anymore. In the 1990s the Stichting Haarlems Biergenootschap revived some of the old recipes under the new Jopen beer brand, that is marketed as a "Haarlem bier". In 2010 Jopen opened a brewery in a former church in central Haarlem called the Jopenkerk. In 2012 Haarlem gained a new local brewery with Uiltje Bar in the Zijlstraat, which specializes in craft beers.

Tulip centre From the 1630s until present day, Haarlem has been a major trading centre for tulips, and it was at the epicentre during tulip mania, when outrageous prices were paid for tulip bulbs. From the time that the Leiden-Haarlem canal Leidsevaart was opened in 1656, it became popular to travel from Rotterdam to Amsterdam by passenger boat rather than by coach. The canals were dug for passenger service only, and were comfortable though slow. The towpath led these passengers through the bulb fields south of Haarlem.

Haarlem was an important stopover for passengers from the last half of the 17th century and through the 18th century until the building of the first rail tracks along the routes of former passenger canal systems. As Haarlem slowly expanded southwards, so did the bulb fields, and even today rail travelers between Rotterdam and Amsterdam will see beautifully blooming bulb fields on the stretch between Leiden and Haarlem in Spring.

Haarlem, Noord-Holland, Netherlands 
<b>Haarlem, Noord-Holland, Netherlands</b>
Image: Adobe Stock dudlajzov #267850361

Haarlem was ranked #1177 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Haarlem has a population of over 161,265 people. Haarlem also forms part of the wider Amsterdam metropolitan area which has a population of over 3,269,905 people. Haarlem is the #93 hipster city in the world, with a hipster score of 4.5609 according to the Hipster Index which evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to the number of vegan eateries, coffee shops, tattoo studios, vintage boutiques, and record stores. Haarlem is ranked #632 for startups with a score of 0.247.

To set up a UBI Lab for Haarlem see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Haarlem is a member city of Eurotowns network including:

🇪🇸 Avilés, Spain 🇩🇪 Böblingen, Germany 🇩🇪 Detmold, Germany 🇸🇪 Eskilstuna, Sweden 🇸🇪 Gävle, Sweden 🇪🇸 Girona, Spain 🇸🇪 Halmstad, Sweden 🇧🇪 Hasselt, Belgium 🇫🇮 Jyväskylä, Finland 🇪🇸 Manresa, Spain 🇮🇹 Reggio Emilia, Italy 🇧🇪 Roeselare, Belgium 🇪🇸 Sabadell, Spain 🇳🇱 Schiedam, Netherlands 🇩🇪 Sindelfingen, Germany 🇩🇪 Solingen, Germany 🇩🇪 Ulm, Germany 🇸🇪 Varberg, Sweden 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 Derby, England
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | Hipster Index | Nomad | StartupBlink

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