🇳🇬 Lagos is the most populous city in Nigeria and all of Africa. Known for its entrepreneurial dynamism, Lagos is a major financial centre for all of Africa and is the economic hub of Lagos State. The city has been described as the cultural, financial, and entertainment capital of Africa, and is a significant influence on commerce, entertainment, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion. Lagos is also among the top ten of the world's fastest-growing cities and urban areas. The mega-city has the fourth-highest GDP in Africa and houses one of the largest and busiest seaports on the continent. The Lagos metropolitan area is a major educational and cultural centre in Sub Saharan Africa.
Lagos initially emerged as a home to the Awori subgroup of the Yoruba of West Africa and later emerged as a port city that originated on a collection of islands, which are contained in the present day Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Lagos Island, Eti-Osa, Amuwo-Odofin and Apapa. The islands are separated by creeks, fringing the south-west mouth of Lagos Lagoon, while being protected from the Atlantic Ocean by barrier islands and long sand spits such as Bar Beach, which stretch up to 100 km (62 mi) east and west of the mouth. Due to rapid urbanisation, the city expanded to the west of the lagoon to include areas in the present day Lagos Mainland, Ajeromi-Ifelodun and Surulere. This led to the classification of Lagos into two main areas: the Island, which was the original city of Lagos, and the Mainland, which it has since expanded into. This city area was governed directly by the Federal Government through the Lagos City Council, until the creation of Lagos State in 1967, which led to the splitting of Lagos city into the present day seven Local Government Areas (LGAs), and an addition of other towns (which now make up 13 LGAs) from the then Western Region to form the state.
However, the state capital was later moved to Ikeja in 1976, and the federal capital moved to Abuja in 1991. Even though Lagos is still widely referred to as a city, the present-day Lagos, also known as "Metropolitan Lagos", and officially as "Lagos Metropolitan Area" is an urban agglomeration or conurbation, consisting of 16 LGAs including Ikeja, the state capital of Lagos State. This conurbation makes up 37% of Lagos State total land area, but houses about 85% of the state's total population.
Greater Metropolitan Lagos includes Lagos and its surrounding metro area, extending as far as into Ogun State.
Economy The city of Lagos is a major economic focal point in Nigeria, generating around 10% of the country's GDP. Most commercial and financial business is carried out in the central business district situated on the island. This is also where most of the country's commercial banks, financial institutions and major corporations are headquartered. Lagos is also the major Information Communications and Telecommunications (ICT) hub of West Africa and potentially, the biggest ICT market in the continent. Lagos is developing a 24-
Ports The Port of Lagos is Nigeria's leading port and one of the largest and busiest in Africa. Due to the large urban population, Lagos is categorised as a medium-port mega-city using the Southampton System for port-city classification. It is administered by the Nigerian Ports Authority. The following types of vessels regularly call at the port of Lagos: Fishing vessels (18%), container ships (14%), oil/chemical tankers (13%), bulk carriers (12%), offshore supply vessels (5%). The maximum length of vessels that have called at this port is 279 meters. The maximum draught is 13.5 m. The maximum carrying capacity is 113,306 t.
The port features a railhead. It is split into three main sections. The largest terminal is located in the Apapa district (Apapa Quays). This is where mainly general cargo is handled. Among other things, Apapa is home to a container port owned by the Danish company A. P. Møller-Mærsk, worth over one billion U.S. dollars. The next largest terminal is located on Tin Can Island. Containers and bulk cargo are handled here. The storage capacity of the silos is 28,000 tons of grain transported by Fleetwood Transportation. The terminal handles wheat, corn and malt, and can receive about 4000 tons of grain daily. The port facilities can handle vessels with a capacity of about 30,000 tons. There is also a grain bagging facility on the site. Third is the Lagos oil port north of Apapa Quays.
Entertainment industry and media Lagos is the centre of the West African film, music, and TV industries. The film industry in the Surulere locality ranks second or third in the world, ahead of or behind Hollywood, depending on the survey. PricewaterhouseCoopers Int. forecasts that the Nigerian entertainment industry will grow 85% to $15 billion. Since the success of the Nigerian thriller "The Figurine", Nigerian film has increasingly turned to high quality productions that are also commercially successful. This, in turn, has led to consistently new box office revenue records in Nigeria (2009's "The Figurine", 2013's "Half of a Yellow Sun", 2016's "The Wedding Party").
Lekki Free Trade Zone (Lekki FTZ) is a free zone situated at the eastern part of Lekki, which covers a total area of about 155 square kilometres. The first phase of the zone has an area of 30 square kilometres, with about 27 square km for urban construction purposes, which would accommodate a total resident population of 120,000. According to the Master Plan, the free zone will be developed into a new modern city within a city with integration of industries, commerce and business, real estate development, warehousing and logistics, tourism, and entertainment.
Lekki FTZ is divided into three functional districts; the residential district in the north, industrial district in the middle and commercial trading/warehousing & logistics district in the south-east. The "sub-centre" located in the south of the Zone is to be developed first. The region is close to the customs supervisory area, and it is mainly for commercial trading, logistics and warehousing operations. The second phase is located in the north of the Zone adjacent to E9 Road (Highway) which will serve as central business district of the free zone. The area along E2 Road will be developed for financial and commercial businesses, estate properties & supporting facilities, high-end production service industries and so on, which will link it to the sub-centre the Zone. The area along E4 Road will be utilised mainly for the development of logistics and industrial manufacturing/processing. A number of connection axes are also planned in-between the principal axis and the sub-axis, with multi-functional service nodes to serve the whole of Lekki FTZ. Dangote Refinery is currently being built in the Lekki Free Zone.
In the start-up area of the Lekki Free Trade Zone, there will be a Commercial & Logistics Park which will cover a total area of 1.5 square kilometres. The Park is planned to be multi-functional with the integration of commerce, trading, warehousing, and exhibition. According to the Site Plan of the park, large construction works will be built in the park, including the "international commodities & trade centre", the "international exhibition & conversation centre", industrial factory workshops, logistics warehouses, office buildings, hotels and residential apartment buildings, amongst others.
Oil refinery Until now, paradoxically, oil exporter Nigeria had to import its oil derivatives (mainly gasoline) and oil processing by-products such as polypropylene. For this reason, the Dangote Group built an oil refinery in the Lekki district, which is expected to be operational in 2022 (as of December 2021). Job advertisements for this were placed in November 2021. The refinery is expected to process 650,000 barrels of oil per day when fully operational, and 327,000 barrels of gasoline, 244,000 barrels of diesel, 56,000 barrels of aviation fuel, 800 megatons of propane, 2,500 megatons of polypropylene, and 100 megatons of sulfur. 9,000 direct jobs and 25,000 indirect jobs will be created by the refinery.
Software companies Software companies in Lagos work mainly in the telecommunications, banking and education/employment services sectors. They are concentrated in the Lekki and Ikeja districts.
MTN maintains the first and still predominant 4G network in Nigeria. Airtel is another 4G provider. 9Mobile and Dataflex are Internet providers. Flutterwave is in the virtual bank card business. Opay is a platform for online bookings. Paystack is used by Nigerians who regularly receive payments from abroad. Andela trains software engineers and places them in the Nigerian job market. ULesson maintains a platform on which secondary school learning content is presented. Hotels.ng allows hotel bookings to be made throughout Africa.
Automotive Industry Former Mercedes manager Oluwatobi Ajayi founded "Nord Automobiles Ltd" in the Sangotedo district in 2018. He benefited from the decline of the naira, which made importing vehicles unaffordable for many Nigerians. Nord has two assembly plants in Lagos: a 2,100 m² plant in Sangotedo, where all eight models are currently assembled; the second 5,400 m² plant in Epe is still under construction. Once completed, assembly of the models will be moved to the new plant, while component manufacturing will take place in Sangotedo. The company currently manufactures its own plastic parts and plans to add steel stamping in the future. "In the new plant, we could produce about 1,000 vehicles per month. But the market is not yet big enough to justify assembly on that scale. We've only been selling officially since September, and our orders are increasing by 20% to 30% per month", Ajayi adds. The company offers eight different models, with the 3-ton pickup, the Nord Tank, being the most popular. The others are the Nord Max (2.6-ton pickup), Nord A3 (sedan), Nord A5 (luxury SUV), Nord Flit minibus, Nord Yarn and Nord Tripper.
Social situation Oil export revenues have led to a general increase in prices and cost of living, making Lagos the most expensive city in Nigeria. Despite its oil wealth, long queues are commonplace at the country's gas stations due to gasoline shortages. Yet the city remains more or less functional, and rapid growth is producing intact infrastructures even without government intervention-despite what the West sees as a chaotic picture. Change and permeability characterize urban coexistence. One room is occupied by an average of four people, and life takes place primarily on the streets. During rush hour between the centre and the residential areas, the main traffic routes are transformed into marketplaces. After improvements in living conditions, the 1990s with their economic and political crises led to mass impoverishment in Lagos as well. In a 2018 ranking of cities by quality of life, Lagos ranked 212th among 231 cities surveyed worldwide. Lagos has been ranked as one of the most expensive cities in the world. In some parts of Lagos, residents have one of the highest standards of living in Nigeria and in Africa. At the same time, a sizable proportion of the residents live in slums without access to piped water and sanitation.
Music and film industry Lagos is famous throughout Africa for its music scene. Lagos has a vibrant nightlife and has given birth to a variety of styles such as Sakara music, Nigerian hip hop, highlife, juju, fuji and Afrobeats.
Lagos is the centre of the Nigerian movie industry, often referred to as 'Nollywood'. Idumota market on Lagos Island is the primary distribution centre. Many films are shot in the Festac area of Lagos, where the World Festival of Black Arts was held.
Iganmu is home to the primary centre for the performing arts and artistes in Nigeria: the National Arts Theatre.
James Brown performed in Lagos in 1970. With his band Wings, Paul McCartney recorded his fifth post-Beatles album, Band on the Run, in an EMI studio in Lagos in August and September 1973. Other foreign musicians who have also performed in the city include Sean Paul, Snoop Dogg, 50 Cent, Akon, Jarule, Ashanti, Usher, Shaggy, R Kelly, Cardi B, Migos especially during the Star Mega Jam; Shakira, John Legend, Boyz II Men, T-Pain, Brian McKnight, JayZ, Mary J. Blige, Beyoncé, Brandy, Ciara, Keri Hilson and Lauryn Hill, among others.
Tourist Industry Lagos, subsequent to the re-modernization project achieved by the previous administration of Governor Raji Babatunde Fashola, is gradually becoming a major tourist destination, being one of the largest cities in Africa and in the world. Lagos is currently taking steps to become a global city. The 2009 Eyo carnival (a yearly festival originated from Iperu Remo, Ogun State), which took place on 25 April, was a step toward world city status. Currently, Lagos is primarily known as a business-oriented and a fast-paced community.
Lagos has become an important location for African and Black cultural identity. Many festivals are held in Lagos; festivals vary in offerings each year and may be held in different months. Some of the festivals are Festac Food Fair held in Festac Town Annually, Eyo Festival, Lagos Black Heritage Carnival, Lagos Carnival, Eko International Film Festival, Lagos Seafood Festac Festival, LAGOS PHOTO Festival and the Lagos Jazz Series, which is a unique franchise for high-quality live music in all genres with a focus on jazz. Established in 2010, the popular event takes place over a 3–5 day period at selected high quality outdoor venues. The music is as varied as the audience itself and features a diverse mix of musical genres from rhythm and blues to soul, Afrobeat, hip hop, bebop, and traditional jazz. The festivals provide entertainment of dance and song to add excitement to travellers during a stay in Lagos.
Lagos has a number of sandy beaches by the Atlantic Ocean, including Elegushi Beach and Alpha Beach. Lagos also has a number of private beach resorts including Inagbe Grand Beach Resort and several others in the outskirts.
Lagos has a variety of hotels ranging from three star to five star hotels, with a mixture of local hotels such as Eko Hotels and Suites, Federal Palace Hotel and franchises of multinational chains such as Intercontinental Hotel, Sheraton and Four Points by Sheraton. Other places of interest include the Tafawa Balewa Square, Festac town, The Nike Art Gallery, Freedom Park, Lagos and the Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos.
Lagos is rated Beta − by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) which evaluates and ranks the relationships between world cities in the context of globalisation. Beta level cities are cities that link moderate economic regions to the world economy.
Lagos is the #102 city in the world according to the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) which evaluates and ranks the competitiveness of the major financial centres of the world according to a wide range of criteria – Human Capital, Business, Finance, Infrastructure and Reputation.
Lagos is rated D+ by the Global Urban Competitiveness Report (GUCR) which evaluates and ranks world cities in the context of economic competitiveness. D+ cities are strong regional hub cities. Lagos was ranked #150 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Lagos has a population of over 9,000,000 people. Lagos also forms the centre of the wider Lagos metropolitan area which has a population of over 21,320,000 people. Lagos is ranked #122 for startups with a score of 4.693.
Twin Towns, Sister Cities Lagos has links with:🇺🇸 Alpharetta, USA 🇺🇸 Atlanta, USA 🇧🇷 Belo Horizonte, Brazil 🇬🇼 Bissau, Guinea-Bissau 🇷🇴 Bucharest, Romania 🇺🇸 Gary, USA 🇲🇿 Maputo, Mozambique 🇪🇸 Palos de la Frontera, Spain 🇹🇹 Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago 🇹🇹 Princes Town, Trinidad and Tobago
Locations Near: Lagos 3.38408,6.45503
Antipodal to: Lagos -176.616,-6.455