Uman, Cherkasy Oblast, Ukraine

History | Jewish community | Economy | Science and education

🇺🇦 Uman is a city located in Cherkasy Oblast in central Ukraine, to the east of Vinnytsia. Located in the historical region of the eastern Podolia, the city rests on the banks of the Umanka River Uman serves as the administrative centre of Uman Raion. It hosts the administration of Uman urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.

Among Ukrainians, Uman is known for its depiction of the Haidamak rebellions in Taras Shevchenko's longest of poems, Haidamaky ("The Haidamaks", 1843). The city is also a pilgrimage site for Breslov Hasidic Jews and a major centre of gardening research containing the dendrological park Sofiyivka and the University of Gardening.

Uman (Humań) was a privately owned city of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.


History Uman was first mentioned in historical documents in 1616, when it was under Polish rule. It was part of the Bracław Voivodeship of the Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown. Its role at this time was as a defensive fort to withstand Tatar raids, containing a prominent Cossack regiment that was stationed within the town. In 1648 it was taken from the Poles by Ivan Hanzha, colonel to Cossack leader Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and Uman was converted to the administrative centre of cossack regiment for the region. Poland retook Uman in 1667, after which the town was deserted by many of its residents who fled eastward to Left-bank Ukraine. From 1670–1674, Uman was a residence to the Hetman of right-bank Ukraine. It was part of Ottoman Empire between 1672 and 1699.

Under the ownership of the Potocki family of Polish nobles (1726–1832) Uman grew in economic and cultural importance. A Basilian monastery and school were established in this time.

The Uman region was site of haidamaky uprisings in 1734, 1750, and 1768. Notably during the latter, Cossack rebels Maksym Zalizniak and Ivan Gonta captured Uman during the Koliyivshchyna uprising against Polish rule. During this revolt, a massacre took place against Jews, Poles and Ukrainian Uniates. On the very first day large numbers of Ukrainians deserted the ranks of Polish forces and joined the rebels when the city was surrounded. Thousands from the surrounding areas fled to the Cossack garrison in Uman for protection. The military commander of Uman, Mladanovich, betrayed the city's Jews and allowed the pursuing Cossacks in, in exchange for clemency towards the Polish population. In the span of three days an estimated 20,000 Poles and Jews were slain with extreme cruelty, according to numerous Polish sources, with one source giving an estimate of 2,000 casualties.

With the 1793 Second Partition of Poland, Uman became part of the Russian Empire and a number of aristocratic residences were built there. In 1795 Uman became a povit/uezd centre in Voznesensk Governorate, and in 1797, in Kyiv Governorate.

Into the 20th century, Uman was linked by rail to Kyiv and Odessa, leading to rapid development of its industrial sector. Its population grew from 10,100 in 1860 to 29,900 in 1900 and over 50,000 in 1914. According to the Russian census of 1897, Uman was the second largest city of Podolia after Kamianets-Podilskyi.

In 1941, the Battle of Uman took place in the vicinity of the town, where the German army encircled Soviet positions. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini visited Uman in 1941. Uman was occupied by German forces from August 1, 1941, to March 10, 1944.

Today the city has optical and farm-machinery plants, a cannery, a brewery, a vitamin factory, a sewing factory, a footwear factory, and other industrial enterprises. Its highest educational institutions are the Uman National University of Horticulture and the Uman State Pedagogical University. The main architectural monuments are the catacombs of the old fortress, the Basilian monastery (1764), the city hall (1780–2), the Dormition Roman Catholic church in the Classicist style (1826), and 19th-century trading stalls.

Uman's landmark is a famous park complex, Sofiyivka (Софiївка; Polish: Zofiówka), founded in 1796 by Count Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki, a Polish noble, who named it for his wife Sofia. The park features a number of waterfalls and narrow, arching stone bridges crossing the streams and scenic ravines.

Until 18 July 2020, Uman was designated as a city of oblast significance and did not belong to Uman Raion even though it was the centre of the raion. As part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Cherkasy Oblast to four, the city was merged into Uman Raion.

During the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Uman was hit by Russian artillery on February 24, 2022 which led to the death of a cyclist. The incident was caught on camera.


Jewish community A large Jewish community lived in Uman in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the Second World War, in 1941, the Battle of Uman took place in the vicinity of the town, where the German army encircled Soviet positions. The Germans deported the entire Jewish community, murdering some 17,000 Jews, and completely destroyed the Jewish cemetery, burial place of the victims of the 1768 uprising as well as Rebbe Nachman of Breslov. After the war, a Breslov Hasid managed to locate the Rebbe's grave and preserved it when the Soviets turned the entire area into a housing project.

Since the 1990s there has been a small, but growing, Jewish population in Uman, concentrated around Rebbe Nachman of Breslov tomb on Pushkina street. The local Jews are mostly involved in pilgrimage of Jewish tourists that arrive to the town. In 2018 the community saw large growth with about 10–20 families coming from Israel, accompanied by a small movement of young American couples. Newcomers to the city are concentrating around Skhidna St, with some toward Nova Uman area. In conjunction with this growth in the community, a new school of Yiddish was established.


Economy The annual pilgrimage is regarded as Uman's main economic industry.


Science and education Universities • Tychyna Pedagogical University • University of Gardening European University (Uman campus)

Institutes and colleges • Agrarian and Technical College • Demutsky Music College • Medical College • Shevchenko Humanitarian and Pedagogical College

Academy of Sciences

(research institutes) • Sofiyivsky Park

Kiev Time 
Kiev Time
Image: Adobe Stock Leonid Andronov #168922214

Uman has a population of over 100,135 people. Uman also forms the centre of the wider Uman Raion which has a population of over 251,408 people.

To set up a UBI Lab for Uman see: Twitter:

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Uman has links with:

🇮🇱 Ashkelon, Israel 🇷🇴 Botoșani, Romania 🇺🇸 Davis, USA 🇵🇱 Gniezno, Poland 🇪🇪 Haapsalu, Estonia 🇵🇱 Kórnik, Poland 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿 Milford Haven, Wales 🇮🇱 Nof HaGalil, Israel 🇱🇹 Radviliškis, Lithuania 🇫🇷 Romilly-sur-Seine, France 🇮🇱 Safed, Israel 🇵🇱 Szprotawa, Poland 🇵🇱 Łańcut, Poland
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license

Antipodal to Uman is: -149.78,-48.751

Locations Near: Uman 30.2198,48.7505

🇺🇦 Zvenyhorodka 30.933,49.1 d: 65  

🇺🇦 Haisyn 29.393,48.811 d: 60.9  

🇺🇦 Pervomaisk 30.85,48.033 d: 92.3  

🇺🇦 Bila Tserkva 30.109,49.811 d: 118.2  

🇺🇦 Podilsk 29.533,47.733 d: 124  

🇺🇦 Fastiv 29.927,50.079 d: 149.2  

🇺🇦 Obukhiv 30.627,50.11 d: 154  

🇺🇦 Vasylkiv 30.312,50.182 d: 159.3  

🇲🇩 Rîbnița 29,47.767 d: 141.8  

🇺🇦 Voznesensk 31.3,47.567 d: 154.1  

Antipodal to: Uman -149.78,-48.751

🇵🇫 Papeete -149.566,-17.537 d: 16544.3  

🇹🇴 Nuku'alofa -175.216,-21.136 d: 16205.4  

🇦🇸 Pago Pago -170.701,-14.279 d: 15730.8  

🇼🇸 Apia -171.76,-13.833 d: 15641.1  

🇺🇸 Hilo -155.089,19.725 d: 12382.7  

🇺🇸 Maui -156.446,20.72 d: 12262  

🇺🇸 Maui County -156.617,20.868 d: 12244.1  

🇺🇸 Kahului -156.466,20.891 d: 12242.8  

🇺🇸 Wailuku -156.505,20.894 d: 12242.2  

🇺🇸 Honolulu -157.85,21.3 d: 12184.6  

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