Kaoshiung, Kaohsiung (Kaohsiung City), Taiwan

History | Early history | Dutch Formosa | Qing Dynasty | Japanese rule | Republic of China | Geography

🇹🇼 Kaohsiung City is a special municipality in southern Taiwan. It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range with an area of 2,952 km². Kaohsiung city is Taiwan's third most populous city and largest city in southern Taiwan.

Since founding in the 17th century, Kaohsiung has grown from a small trading village into the political and economic centre of southern Taiwan, with key industries such as manufacturing, steel-making, oil refining, freight transport and shipbuilding. It has some of the most prominent infrastructures in Taiwan. The Port of Kaohsiung is the largest and busiest harbour in Taiwan while Kaohsiung International Airport is the second busiest airport in number of passengers. The city is well-connected to other major cities by high speed and conventional rail, as well as several national freeways. It also hosts the Republic of China Navy fleet headquarters and its naval academy. More recent public works such as Pier-2 Art Center, National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts and Kaohsiung Music Center have been aimed at growing the tourism and cultural industries of the city.

History The written history of Kaohsiung can be traced back to the early 17th century, through archaeological studies have found signs of human activity in the region from as long as 7,000 years ago. Prior to the 17th century, the region was inhabited by the Makatao people of the Siraya tribe, who settled on what they named Takau Isle (translated to 打狗嶼 by Ming Chinese explorers); "Takau" meaning "bamboo forest" in the aboriginal language.

Early history The earliest evidence of human activity in the Kaohsiung area dates back to roughly 4,700–5,200 years ago. Most of the discovered remnants were located in the hills surrounding Kaohsiung Harbor. Artifacts were found at Shoushan, Longquan Temple, Taoziyuan, Zuoying, Houjing, Fudingjin and Fengbitou. The prehistoric Dapenkeng, Niuchouzi, Dahu, and Niaosong civilizations were known to inhabit the region. Studies of the prehistoric ruins at Longquan Temple have shown that that civilization occurred at roughly the same times as the beginnings of the aboriginal Makatao civilization, suggesting a possible origin for the latter. Unlike some other archaeological sites in the area, the Longquan Temple ruins are relatively well preserved. Prehistoric artifacts discovered have suggested that the ancient Kaohsiung Harbor was originally a lagoon, with early civilizations functioning primarily as Hunter-gatherer societies. Some agricultural tools have also been discovered, suggesting that some agricultural activity was also present. The pronunciation of Kaohsiung (Takao) in Japanese is similar to Takau (Takau), so the local flavor of Takao was renamed Kaohsiung.

The first Chinese records of the region were written in 1603 by Chen Di, a member of Ming admiral Shen You-rong's expedition to rid the waters around Taiwan and Penghu of pirates. In his report on the "Eastern Barbarian Lands" (Dong Fan Ji), Chen Di referred to a Ta-kau Isle: It is unknown when the barbarians (Taiwanese aborigines) arose on this island in the ocean beyond Penghu, but they are present at Keeong Harbor (nowaday's Budai, Chiayi), the bay of Galaw (Anping, Tainan), Laydwawan (Tainan City), Yaw Harbor (Cheting, Kaohsiung), Takau Isle (Kaohsiung City), Little Tamsui (Donggang, Pingtung), Siangkeykaw (Puzi, Chiayi), Gali forest (Jiali District, Tainan), the village of Sabah (Tamsui, Taipei), and Dwabangkang (Bali, New Taipei City).

Dutch Formosa Taiwan became a Dutch colony in 1624, after the Dutch East India Company was ejected from Penghu by Ming forces. At the time, Takau was already one of the most important fishing ports in southern Taiwan. The Dutch named the place Tankoya, and the harbor Tancoia. The Dutch missionary François Valentijn named Takau Mountain "Ape Berg", a name that would find its way onto European navigational charts well into the 18th century. Tankoia was located north of Ape's Hill and a few hours south from Tayouan (modern-day Anping, Tainan) by sail. At the time, a wide shallow bay existed there, sufficient for small vessels. However, constant silting changed the coastline.

During this time, Taiwan was divided into five administrative districts, with Takau belonging to the southernmost district. In 1630, the first large scale immigration of Han Chinese to Taiwan began due to famine in Fujian, with merchants and traders from China seeking to purchase hunting licenses from the Dutch or hide out in aboriginal villages to escape authorities in China.

Qing Dynasty In 1684, the Qing Dynasty annexed Taiwan and renamed the town Fongshan County (Chinese: 鳳山縣; Fèngshān Xiàn), considering it a part of Taiwan Prefecture. It was first opened as a port during the 1680s and subsequently prospered fairly for generations.

Japanese rule In 1895, Taiwan was ceded to Japan as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Administrative control of the city was moved from New Fongshan Castle to the Fongshan Sub-District of Tainan Chō (臺南廳). In November 1901, twenty chō were established in total; Hōzan Chō (鳳山廳) was established nearby. In 1909, Hōzan Chō was abolished, and Takow was merged into Tainan Chō.

In 1920, during the tenure of 8th Governor-General Den Kenjirō, districts were abolished in favor of prefectures. Thus the city was administered as Takao City (高雄市, Takao-shi) under Takao Prefecture.

The Japanese developed Takao, especially the harbor that became the foundation of Kaohsiung to be a port city. Takao was then systematically modernized and connected to the end of North-South Railway. Forming a north–south regional economic corridor from Taipei to Kaohsiung in the 1930s, Japan's Southward Policy set Kaohsiung to become an industrial center. Kaohsiung Harbor was also developed starting from 1894. The city centre was relocated several times during the period due to the government's development strategy. Development was initially centered on Ki-au (Chinese: 旗後; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Kî-āu) region but the government began laying railways, upgrading the harbor, and passing new urban plans. New industries such as refinery, machinery, shipbuilding and cementing were also introduced.

Before and during World War II it handled a growing share of Taiwan's agricultural exports to Japan, and was also a major base for Japan's campaigns in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Extremely ambitious plans for the construction of a massive modern port were drawn up. Toward the end of the war, the Japanese promoted some industrial development at Kaohsiung, establishing an aluminum industry based on the abundant hydroelectric power produced by the Sun Moon Lake project in the mountains.

The city was heavily bombed by Task Force 38 and FEAF during World War II between 1944 and 1945.

Republic of China After control of Taiwan was handed over from Japan to the government of the Republic of China on 25 October 1945, Kaohsiung City and Kaohsiung County were established as a provincial city and a county of Taiwan Province respectively on 25 December 1945. The official romanization of the name came to be "Kaohsiung", based on the Wade–Giles romanization of the Mandarin reading of the kanji name. Kaohsiung City then consisted of 10 districts, which were Gushan, Lianya (renamed "Lingya" in 1952), Nanzih, Cianjin, Cianjhen, Cijin, Sanmin, Sinsing, Yancheng, and Zuoying.

During this time, Kaohsiung developed rapidly. The port, badly damaged in World War II, was restored. It also became a fishing port for boats sailing to Filipino and Indonesian waters. Largely because of its climate, Kaohsiung overtook Keelung as Taiwan's major port. Kaohsiung also surpassed Tainan to become the second largest city of Taiwan in the late 1970s and Kaohsiung City was upgraded from a provincial city to special municipality on 1 July 1979, by the Executive Yuan with a total of 11 districts. The additional district is Siaogang District, which was annexed from Siaogang Township of Kaohsiung County.

The Kaohsiung Incident, where the government suppressed a commemoration of International Human Rights Day, occurred on 10 December 1979. Since then, Kaohsiung gradually grew into a political centre of the Pan-Green population of Taiwan, in opposition to Taipei where the majority population is Kuomintang supporters.

On 25 December 2010, Kaohsiung City merged with Kaohsiung County to form a larger special municipality with administrative centres in Lingya District and Fongshan District.

On 31 July 2014, a series of gas explosions occurred in the Cianjhen and Lingya Districts of the city, killing 31 and injuring more than 300. Five roads were destroyed in an area of nearly 20 km² (7.7 sq mi) near the city center. It was the largest gas explosion in Taiwan's modern history.

Geography The city sits on the south-western coast of Taiwan facing the Taiwan Strait, bordering Tainan City to the north, Chiayi and Nantou County to the north-west, Taitung County to its north-east and Pingtung County to the south and southeast. The downtown areas are centered on Kaohsiung Harbor with Cijin Island on the other side of the harbor acting as a natural breakwater. The Love River (Ai River) flows into the harbor through the Old City and downtown. Zuoying Military Harbor lies to the north of Kaohsiung Harbor and the city center. Kaohsiung's natural landmarks include Ape Hill and Mount Banping.

Cijin, Qijin District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan 
Cijin, Qijin District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
Image: Photo by Jason Hong on Unsplash

Kaoshiung is rated Gamma - by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) which evaluates and ranks the relationships between world cities in the context of globalisation. Gamma level cities are cities that link smaller economic regions into the world economy.

Kaoshiung has a population of over 2,773,127 people. Kaoshiung also forms the centre of the wider Kaohsiung metropolitan area which has a population of over 3,023,225 people.

To set up a UBI Lab for Kaoshiung see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Twin Towns - Sister Cities Kaoshiung has links with:

🇮🇩 Surabaya, Indonesia
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | GaWC

North of: 22.621

🇹🇼 Kaohsiung 22.621

🇲🇽 Jerez 22.633

🇮🇳 Basirhat 22.65

🇨🇳 Yulin 22.654

🇹🇼 Pingtung 22.667

🇻🇳 Cao Bằng 22.667

🇴🇲 Ibra 22.683

🇮🇳 Nadiad 22.69

🇧🇩 Noakhali 22.7

🇧🇩 Barisal 22.703

South of: 22.621

🇮🇳 Mandla 22.601

🇹🇼 Kaohsiung City 22.6

🇨🇳 Jiangmen 22.574

🇮🇳 Kolkata 22.571

🇮🇳 Howrah 22.567

🇮🇳 Anand 22.556

🇨🇳 Shenzhen 22.547

🇨🇳 Shenzen 22.542

🇨🇳 Zhongshan 22.521

🇨🇳 Futian 22.517

East of: 120.312

🇵🇭 San Fernando 120.315

🇵🇭 Dagupan 120.343

🇵🇭 San Carlos 120.349

🇵🇭 Tamayo 120.349

🇵🇭 San Carlos City 120.349

🇵🇭 Bayambang 120.35

🇨🇳 Qingdao 120.356

🇵🇭 Agoo 120.365

🇨🇳 Zhangjiagang 120.366

🇵🇭 Calasiao 120.37

West of: 120.312

🇹🇼 Kaohsiung 120.312

🇹🇼 Xinying 120.3

🇨🇳 Huishan 120.299

🇨🇳 Wuxi 120.296

🇵🇭 Olongapo 120.29

🇨🇳 Binhu 120.284

🇹🇼 Kaohsiung City 120.283

🇵🇭 Olongapo City 120.28

🇵🇭 Binmaley 120.269

🇨🇳 Jiangyin 120.268

Antipodal to Kaoshiung is: -59.688,-22.621

Locations Near: Kaoshiung 120.312,22.6205

🇹🇼 Kaohsiung 120.312,22.621 d: 0  

🇹🇼 Kaohsiung City 120.283,22.6 d: 3.7  

🇹🇼 Pingtung 120.483,22.667 d: 18.3  

🇹🇼 Tainan 120.18,22.934 d: 37.4  

🇹🇼 Tainan City 120.215,22.992 d: 42.5  

🇹🇼 Douliu 120.467,23.149 d: 60.9  

🇹🇼 Xinying 120.3,23.3 d: 75.6  

🇹🇼 Taitung 121.133,22.75 d: 85.5  

🇹🇼 Taitung City 121.133,22.75 d: 85.5  

🇹🇼 Chiayi 120.433,23.467 d: 94.9  

Antipodal to: Kaoshiung -59.688,-22.621

🇵🇾 Filadelfia -60.017,-22.333 d: 19968.6  

🇵🇾 Concepción -57.417,-23.4 d: 19767  

🇦🇷 Clorinda -57.717,-25.283 d: 19657.6  

🇵🇾 Mariano Roque Alonso -57.543,-25.158 d: 19658.5  

🇵🇾 Lambaré -57.633,-25.317 d: 19649.8  

🇵🇾 Asunción -57.56,-25.304 d: 19646.6  

🇵🇾 Fernando de la Mora -57.58,-25.323 d: 19646  

🇵🇾 Luque -57.483,-25.267 d: 19645.3  

🇵🇾 San Lorenzo -57.517,-25.333 d: 19641.4  

🇵🇾 Capiatá -57.417,-25.35 d: 19633.8  

Bing Map

Option 1