Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India

History | Geography | Economy | Culture | Tourist attractions | Transport : Air : Rail : Road | Education | Sport

🇮🇳 Aurangabad is a city in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the administrative headquarters of Aurangabad district and is the largest city in the Marathwada region. Located on a hilly upland terrain in the Deccan Traps, Aurangabad is the fourth-most populous urban area in Maharashtra. The city is known as a major production centre of cotton textile and artistic silk fabrics. Several prominent educational institutions, including Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, are located in the city. The city is also a popular tourism hub, with tourist destinations like the Ajanta and Ellora caves lying on its outskirts, both of which are designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Other tourist attractions include the Aurangabad Caves, Daulatabad Fort, Grishneshwar Temple, Jama Mosque, Bibi Ka Maqbara, Himayat Bagh, Panchakki and Salim Ali Lake. Historically, there were 52 Gates in Aurangabad, some of them extant, because of which Aurangabad is nicknamed as the "City of Gates". In 2019, the Aurangabad Industrial City became the first green field industrial smart city of India under the country's flagship Smart Cities Mission.

Paithan, the imperial capital of the Satavahana dynasty (1st century BCE–2nd century CE), as well as Dēvagirī, the capital of the Yadava dynasty (9th century CE–14th century CE), are located within the limits of modern Aurangabad. In 1308, the region was annexed by the Delhi Sultanate during the rule of Sultan Alauddin Khalji. In 1327, the capital of the Delhi Sultanate was shifted from Delhi to Daulatabad (in present-day Aurangabad) during the rule of Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq, who ordered a mass migration of Delhi's population to Daulatabad. However, Muhammad bin Tughluq reversed his decision in 1334 and the capital was shifted back to Delhi. In 1499, Daulatabad became a part of the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. In 1610, a new city named Khaḍkī was established at the location of modern Aurangabad to serve as the capital of the Ahmadnagar Sultanate by the Ethiopian military leader Malik Ambar, who was brought to India as a slave but rose to become a popular Prime Minister of the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Malik Ambar was succeeded by his son Fateh Khan, who changed the name of the city to Fatehnagar. In 1636, Aurangzeb, who was then the Mughal viceroy of the Deccan region, annexed the city into the Mughal Empire. In 1653, Aurangzeb renamed the city as "Aurangabad" and made it the capital of the Deccan region of the Mughal Empire. In 1724, the Mughal governor of the Deccan, Nizam Asaf Jah I, seceded from the Mughal Empire and founded his own Asaf Jahi dynasty. The dynasty established the State of Hyderabad with their capital initially at Aurangabad, until they transferred their capital to the city of Hyderabad in 1763. Hyderabad State became a princely state during the British Raj, and remained so for 150 years (1798–1948). Until 1956, Aurangabad remained part of Hyderabad State. In 1960, Aurangabad and the larger Marathi-speaking Marathwada region became a part of the state of Maharashtra.

History Khaḍkī was the original name of the village which was made a capital city by Malik Ambar, the Prime Minister of Murtaza Nizam Shah II, Sultan of Ahmednagar. Within a decade, Khaḍkī grew into a populous and imposing city. Malik Ambar died in 1626. He was succeeded by his son Fateh Khan, who changed the name of Khaḍkī to Fatehnagar. With the capture of Devagiri Fort by the imperial troops in 1633, the Nizam Shahi dominions, including Fatehnagar, came under the possession of the Mughals.

In 1653, when Mughal prince Aurangzeb was appointed the Viceroy of the Deccan for the second time, he made Fatehnagar his capital and renamed it Aurangabad. Aurangabad is sometimes referred to as Khujista Bunyad by the chroniclers of Aurangzeb's reign.

In 1667 Muazzam, son of Aurangzeb became governor of this province. Before him Mirza Rajah Jai Singh was in-charge of this province for some time.

In 1681, after Aurangzeb's coronation as emperor, he shifted his court from the capital city of Delhi to Aurangabad in order to conduct his military campaigns in the Deccan. The presence of Mughal elites in the city led to urban development, as numerous public and private buildings were constructed. Though Aurangzeb chose not to reside in the city after 1684, the city retained importance as the primary military outpost of the Mughal Deccan, attracting wealth and turning Aurangabad into a centre of trade; the manufacture of embroidered silks emerged during this period and is still practiced in Aurangabad today. Mughal Aurangabad was also a cultural hub, serving as an important centre of Persian and Urdu literature. During the Mughal era, Aurangabad had an estimated population of 200,000 people, living in 54 suburbs.

In 1724, Asaf Jah, a Mughal general and Nizam al-Mulk in the Deccan region, decided to secede from the crumbling Mughal Empire, with the intention of founding his own dynasty in the Deccan. Aurangabad continued to be politically and culturally significant for the next 40 years as capital of Asaf Jah's new dominion, until his son and successor Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah II transferred the capital to Hyderabad in 1763. The loss of Aurangabad's privileged position led to a period of economic decline; by the beginning of the 19th century, the city had become notably underpopulated, leading to the crippling of its administration, and its buildings were in decay. However, Aurangabad would continue to be important as the "second city" of the Nizam's dominions for the remainder of the polity's lifetime.

In 1816, the British established a cantonment outside Aurangabad (as they did in other parts of the Nizam's dominions), but were discouraged from entering the city proper by the Nizam's officials. As a princely state under British suzerainty, the Nizam's Hyderabad State was quasi-autonomous, meaning that Aurangabad's culture was somewhat free of colonial influence.

Aurangabad began to industrialise in the late 19th century, with the city's first cotton mill being opened in 1889. The population of the city was 30,000 in 1881, growing to 36,000 over the next two decades. Aurangabad was particularly affected by Deccan famines in 1899-1900, 1918, and 1920, causing surges in crime.

Following Indian independence, Hyderabad State was annexed into the Indian Union in 1948, and consequently Aurangabad became a part of the Indian Union's Hyderabad State. In 1956, it passed into the newly formed bilingual Bombay State, and in 1960 it became a part of Maharashtra state.

Bal Thackeray in 1988 proposed the city to be renamed as Sambhajinagar. The local governing body i.e., City Corporation passed a resolution on name change in 1995. On 29 June 2022, the Shiv Sena-led Maharashtra cabinet approved the renaming of Aurangabad to Sambhaji Nagar, after Sambhaji Bhosale, second Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire.

Geography The city is surrounded by hills on all directions.

Economy Aurangabad is considered to be a classic example of efforts of state government towards balanced industrialisation of state. The city was a major silk and cotton textile production center. A fine blend of silk with locally grown cotton was developed as Himroo textile. Paithani silk saris are also made in Aurangabad. With the opening of the Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railways in the year 1900 several ginning factories were started. After 1960, Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) began acquiring land and setting up industrial estates. The Maharashtra Center For Entrepreneurship Development's main office is in Aurangabad. Major industries in Auragabad are manufacturing, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals and automobiles etc. In the 1990s, land near Shendra village on the Aurangabad-Jalna route was purchased. The MIDC created the Waluj and Chikalthana Industrial Areas as part of its efforts, which were quickly purchased.

Aurangabad is surrounded by the industrial areas (MIDCs) of Chikhalthana, Shendra and Waluj MIDC. A new industrial belt namely Shendra - Bidkin Industrial Park is being developed under DMIC. Major Siemens and automotive companies such as BMW, Audi India, Skoda Auto, Bajaj Auto and Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company have there units in the city. One of the largest Russian Steel Company NLMK has setup plant in DMIC Shendra phase.

Culture The culture of Aurangabad city is heavily influenced by the culture of Hyderabad. The old city still retains the cultural flavour and charms of Muslim culture of Hyderabad. Its influence is reflected in the language and cuisine of the locals. Although Urdu is among the principal languages of the city, along with Marathi and Hindi, it is spoken in the Dakhni – Hyderabadi Urdu dialect. • Wali Dakhni also known as Wali Aurangabadi (1667–1731 or 1743) was a classical poet of Urdu from Aurangabad. He was the first established poet to have composed in Urdu language. Prominent poets like Shah Hatem, Shah Abro, Mir Taqi Mir, Zauq and Sauda were among his admirers. Other prominent poets from Aurangabad include Siraj Aurangabadi, Azad Bilgrami and Sikandar Ali Wajd. • Abul Ala Maududi one of the Muslim scholars (1903–1979) was born in Aurangabad, India. Syed Abul A'ala Maududi was born to Maulana Ahmad Hasan, a lawyer by profession. His father was "descended from the Chishti line of saints. He was also the founder of Jamaat-e-Islami, the Islamic revivalist party.

Tourist attractions Aurangabad is a historical city along with its surrounding towns and villages.

Transport: Air Aurangabad Airport is an airport serving the city and has connecting flights to Hyderabad, Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Udaipur, Tirupati, Visakhapatnam and Thiruvananthapuram. In 2008, flights were made available to the people travelling to the Hajj pilgrimage.

Transport: Rail Aurangabad railway station is the major railway station under Nanded railway division of the South Central Railway zone. It is located on the Kacheguda-Manmad section and has rail connectivity with major cities such as Delhi, Hyderabad, Latur Road, Manmad, Mumbai, Nagpur, Nanded, Nashik Road, Nizamabad and Pune. The work of DPR preparation is ongoing for metro in Aurangabad from Shendra and Waluj. The work of surveys and DPR is also ongoing for high speed rail line from Mumbai to Nagpur, which will have a halt in Aurangabad.

Transport: Road Central Bus Stand, Aurangabad of MSRTC is the main public transport centre. Buses are available to every major bus depots of Maharashtra. Ola Cabs service is available in city. Major long route Aurangabad buses reach Delhi, Jaipur, Gandhinagar and Hyderabad in 2–3 days. MSRTC buses are also available for all district of Maharashtra and neighboring State's cities like Indore, Ujjain, Surat, Vadodara, Khandwa, Burhanpur, Khargone, Bhopal. There are Smart City Bus service in Aurangabad as the part of public transport in Aurangabad.

Education Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University (BAMU) is located in Aurangabad city. Many colleges in the region are affiliated to it. The university has 101 Colleges affiliated in Aurangabad and 99 Colleges in Beed, 53 & 55 Colleges affiliated in Jalna & Osmanabad.

Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad is an autonomous engineering college. It was affiliated to the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University and was established in 1960. The construction of the college was started in 1957 and was completed in 1960. Marathwada Institute of Technology and Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College are two other engineering colleges in Aurangabad.

Maharashtra National Law University, Aurangabad is a state university located in Aurangabad. It was established in 2017 by the Government of Maharashtra, the third and final university to be installed through the Maharashtra National Law University Act, 2014

Maulana Azad College of Arts and Science was founded in 1963 by Rafiq Zakaria, who formed a trust called Maulana Azad Education Society to manage the affairs. The college is affiliated to Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University of Aurangabad.

National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology Aurangabad (NIELIT Aurangabad) is located inside the Dr. B.A.M. University campus. It is a central government engineering institute under the Ministry of Communication & Information Technology Government of India. It offers DEPM, B.TECH (Electronics Engineering), M.tech (Electronics Design Technology), Ph.D., and short-term courses.

Aurangabad has schools run by the Aurangabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) and private schools owned and run by trusts and individuals. Government Polytechnic Aurangabad is one of the polytechnic institutions in Marathwada region.

Institute of Hotel Management, Aurangabad, is affiliated to University of Huddersfield. Students have internships in the Vivanta, Taj in Aurangabad.

In 1903, a treaty was signed between British and the Nizam to train the Nizam's Army and it was decided to establish a proper cantonment. Today the cantonment is spread across 2,584 acres (10.46 km²) with civil population of 19,274 as per 2001 census.

Sport Garware Stadium is the municipal stadium in the city. International-standard cricket stadium at Aurangabad District Cricket Association Stadium is under construction. Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College Sports Complex is a sports complex with in Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College mainly used by college sports event.

Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India 
<b>Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India</b>
Image: Kounosu

Aurangabad has a population of over 1,175,116 people. Aurangabad also forms the centre of the wider Aurangabad Division which has a population of over 13,645,875 people.

To set up a UBI Lab for Aurangabad see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Aurangabad has links with:

🇨🇳 Dunhuang, China 🇩🇪 Ingolstadt, Germany
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license

Antipodal to Aurangabad is: -104.68,-19.88

Locations Near: Aurangabad 75.32,19.88

🇮🇳 Shrirampur 74.66,19.62 d: 74.9  

🇮🇳 Ahmednagar 74.73,19.08 d: 108.3  

🇮🇳 Ahilya Nagar 74.73,19.08 d: 108.3  

🇮🇳 Malegaon 74.526,20.555 d: 111.8  

🇮🇳 Sangamner 74.22,19.57 d: 120.2  

🇮🇳 Jalgaon 75.568,21.004 d: 127.6  

🇮🇳 Bhusawal 75.77,21.05 d: 138.3  

🇮🇳 Nashik 73.783,19.983 d: 161  

🇮🇳 Parbhani 76.78,19.27 d: 167.3  

🇮🇳 Baramati 74.58,18.15 d: 207.5  

Antipodal to: Aurangabad -104.68,-19.88

🇵🇪 Sechura -80.817,-5.55 d: 16983  

🇵🇪 Talara -81.267,-4.567 d: 16961.4  

🇵🇪 Chiclayo -79.844,-6.764 d: 16964.6  

🇵🇪 Piura -80.633,-5.2 d: 16944.4  

🇵🇪 Trujillo -79.034,-8.103 d: 16960.2  

🇵🇪 Chimbote -78.583,-9.067 d: 16964.9  

🇵🇪 Máncora -81.05,-4.1 d: 16911.4  

🇵🇪 Callao -77.15,-12.067 d: 16951.4  

🇵🇪 Ancón -77.15,-11.733 d: 16938.5  

🇵🇪 Miraflores -77.033,-12.117 d: 16941.3  

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