Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

🇲🇳 Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator, is the capital and most populous city of Mongolia. The municipality is located in north central Mongolia at an elevation of about 1,300 metres in a valley on the Tuul River. The city was originally founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre, changing location 28 times, and was permanently settled at its current location in 1778.

During its early years, as Örgöö (anglicised as Urga), it became Mongolia's preeminent religious centre and seat of the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, the spiritual head of the Gelug lineage of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia. Following the regulation of Qing-Russian trade by the Treaty of Kyakhta in 1727, a caravan route between Beijing and Kyakhta opened up, along which the city was eventually settled. With the collapse of the Qing Empire in 1911, the city was a focal point for independence efforts, leading to the proclamation of the Bogd Khanate in 1911 led by the 8th Javtsundamba Khutughtu, and again during the communist revolution of 1921. With the proclamation of the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924, the city was officially renamed Ulaanbaatar and declared the country's capital. Modern urban planning began in the 1950s, with most of the old Ger districts replaced by Soviet-style flats. In 1990, Ulaanbaatar was a major site of demonstrations that led to Mongolia's transition to democracy and a market economy. Since 1990, an influx of migrants from the rest of the country has led to an explosive growth in its population, a major portion of which live in Ger districts, which has led to harmful air pollution in winter.

Governed as an independent municipality, Ulaanbaatar is surrounded by Töv Province, whose capital Zuunmod lies 43 km south of the city. With a population of just under 1.5 million as of 2020, it contains almost half of the country's total population. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's transport network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system.

Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia 
<b>Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia</b>
Image: Adobe Stock robnaw #227961949

Ulaanbaatar is rated High Sufficiency by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) which evaluates and ranks the relationships between world cities in the context of globalisation. High Sufficiency level cities are cities that have a sufficient degree of services so as not to be overly dependent on world cities.

Ulaanbaatar is rated E+ by the Global Urban Competitiveness Report (GUCR) which evaluates and ranks world cities in the context of economic competitiveness. E+ cities are strong regional gateway cities. Ulaanbaatar was ranked #958 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Ulaanbaatar has a population of over 1,445,000 people. Ulaanbaatar also forms the centre of the wider Mongolia state which has a population of over 3,353,470 people. Ulaanbaatar is ranked #491 for startups with a score of 0.375.

To set up a UBI Lab for Ulaanbaatar see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Ulaanbaatar has links with: 🇹🇷 Ankara, Turkey; 🇹🇭 Bangkok, Thailand; 🇨🇳 Beijing, China; 🇩🇪 Bonn, Germany; 🇺🇸 Denver, United States; 🇷🇺 Elista, Russia; 🇹🇷 Gaziantep, Turkey; 🇨🇳 Haikou, China; 🇨🇳 Hohhot, China; 🇰🇷 Incheon, South Korea; 🇷🇺 Irkutsk, Russia; 🇷🇺 Kazan, Russia; 🇷🇺 Krasnoyarsk, Russia; 🇪🇪 Maardu, Estonia; 🇷🇺 Moscow, Russia; 🇷🇺 Novosibirsk, Russia; 🇰🇿 Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan; 🇰🇵 Pyongyang, North Korea; 🇰🇷 Seoul, South Korea; 🇧🇬 Strelcha, Bulgaria; 🇹🇼 Taipei, Taiwan; 🇨🇳 Tianjin, China; 🇷🇺 Ulan-Ude, Russia; 🇨🇳 Yinchuan, China.

Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | GaWC | GUCR | Nomad | StartupBlink

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