Toluca, México (State of Mexico), Mexico

🇲🇽 Toluca , officially Toluca de Lerdo [toˈluka ðe ˈleɾðo], is the state capital of the State of Mexico as well as the seat of the Municipality of Toluca. Toluca is the fifth most populous city in Mexico. The city forms the core of the Greater Toluca metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan area in the country. Located 63 kilometres (39 mi) south-west of Mexico City, the city's rapid growth stems largely from its proximity to the capital. Toluca is famous for being the site of commercial chorizo (Mexican pork sausage) production.

Economy In colonial times, Toluca first gained economic importance as a producer of smoked and cured meats, especially chorizo sausage. The nearby town of Lerma still carries on this tradition. However, since that time, Toluca's economy has expanded far beyond sausage to become one of the most industrialised areas in Mexico. Its geographic position in the centre of the country and proximity to Mexico City as well as its well-developed infrastructure, have allowed Toluca to grow into a major industrial zone for the state. Toluca began consolidating in the 1940s, but the most intense industrialisation began in the 1950s and continued through most of the 1980s. The growth and industrialisation of Toluca is closely tied to the growth and changes in economic activities that have occurred in the Mexico City metropolitan area. Most industrial enterprises are on the small and micro-level but the city has attracted a large number of international corporations. Major products produced include food processing, metals and machinery, paper products, printed matter as well as auto production. The industrial base of the Toluca metropolitan area employs over 33% of the municipality's population and 6% of the entire state's population.

Outside of the metropolitan area, the economy is still based on agriculture and livestock, with some income from tourism. Only a little over four percent of the total municipal population engages in agriculture raising corn, wheat, beans, potatoes, peas, fava beans and oats on a little over half of the municipality's territory. Livestock raising is a greater source of income with 10,286 sites producing cattle, pigs, sheep and domestic fowl. Tourism is based on the Nevado de Toluca volcano and the archaeological zone of Calixtlahuaca. Despite being little known internationally, they manage to represent about 50% of the state's tourism income.

Toluca lies in the southern part of the valley and its economic influence is most strongly felt in the southern and central parts of the valley. The northern parts of the valley have closer ties to Atlacomulco. The core metropolitan area of Toluca consists of the municipalities of Toluca, Lerma, Metepec, San Mateo Atenco, Ocoyoacac and Zinacantepec. The economic interdependence of these municipalities are most similar to that of the communities in the Mexico City metropolitan area. There are two "outer spheres" of the metropolitan area. The first consists of the municipalities of Almoloya del Río, Capulhuac, Mexicaltzingo, San Antonio la Isla, Tenango del Valle and Xonacatlán. The furthest sphere consists of Santiango Tianguistenco, Santa María Rayón, Santa Cruz Atizapán and Chapultepec, México. These spheres are defined not only by geographical distance but also by population growth and rate of urbanization.

Industrial zone Toluca is located in the economic centre of Mexico. Toluca has become an important economic city because of its industries and infrastructure that produce drinks, food, textiles, cars, electric products and such. Since 1944, many industries have settled in Toluca rather than in other cities. In 1965, the industrial zone of Toluca-Lerma-Tianguistenco, which is located on the north side of Toluca, began to attract industries to the area. The city now has five additional major industrial parks: Corredor Industrial Toluca, Parque Industrial Lerma, Parque Industrial Exportec I., Parque Industrial Exportec II and the Parque Industrial El Coecillo.

Chrysler's Toluca Car Assembly has manufactured automobiles since 1968. The complex — where the FIAT 500 is assembled — employs 2300 people. Other companies located here and other of Toluca's industrial parks are BMW, Mercedes Benz, Coca-Cola, Femsa, Grupo Bimbo, Nissan, Nestlé, Pfizer, Bayer, Crisa, Barcel, Knorr, Trelleborg Automotive, and HSBC. have complete manufacturing and R&D facilities in the Toluca industrial park. Mercedes-Benz manufactures the C-Class, E-Class, G-Class, here and upgrades the GL-Class, S-Class and CLS-Class to armoured vehicles at this facility. BMW manufactures its 3, 5, 7 and X5 series and also offers armoured variants.

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Image: Teotihuacan

Toluca is rated E+ by the Global Urban Competitiveness Report (GUCR) which evaluates and ranks world cities in the context of economic competitiveness. E+ cities are strong regional gateway cities. Toluca was ranked #1036 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Toluca has a population of over 910,608 people. Toluca also forms part of the Greater Toluca metropolitan area which has a population of over 2,522,407 people.

Twin Towns – Sister Cities Toluca is twinned with: 🇻🇳 Da Nang City, Vietnam; 🇭🇺 Debrecen, Hungary; 🇺🇸 Fort Worth, United States; 🇨🇳 Nanchang, China; 🇷🇸 Novi Sad, Serbia; 🇵🇸 Ramallah and 🇵🇸 Al-Bireh, Palestine; 🇯🇵 Saitama, Japan; 🇰🇷 Suwon, South Korea.

Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | Nomad