Surakarta, Central Java Province, Indonesia

History | Pakubuwono X | Struggle for independence | Administrative divisions | Greater Surakarta | Economy | Tourist Industry | Sport | Disabled sports | Transport : Air : Rail : Road

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Surakarta, known colloquially as Solo, is a city in Central Java, Indonesia. It is situated alongside the Solo River. Its built-up area, consists of Surakarta Municipality and 59 districts spread over seven regencies. Surakarta as a dense core city in Central Java, and its second city, spills considerably into neighbouring regencies. Surakarta City and its surrounding regencies, Karanganyar, Sragen, Wonogiri, Sukoharjo, Klaten, and Boyolali, are collectively called the ex-Surakarta Residency.

1

History Hominid habitation in the region of Surakarta is evidenced from roughly one million years ago, the age of the "Java Man" skeleton found 80 km upstream. Another famous early hominid from this area is called "Solo Man".

The Surakarta area was part of the Mataram Kingdom and in this time a village called Wulayu seems to have already existed in or around the present-day city of Surakarta, as evidenced by a ferry charter issued by Balitung in A.D. 904. The Majapahit empire renewed this ferry charter in 1358.

By the 18th century, the village had acquired the name of Sala. This name is said to be derived from the sala tree. As the Javanese pronunciation "Sala" was considered difficult to pronounce by the Dutch, the name later morphed into "Solo".

In 1745, on the basis of astrological calculations and Dutch commercial interest, Surakarta was chosen to be the new capital of the Mataram Sultanate which was on the verge of becoming a vassal state of the Dutch East India Company. The formal name is derived from the previous capital Kartasura. The official court history claims that Surakarta originally stood on a lake, which was drained by the favor of the mythical queen of the southern sea, Kanjeng Ratu Kidul.

In the ensuing colonial era, the kingdom of Mataram was divided into the Surakarta Sunanate (northern court) and the Yogyakarta Sultanate (southern court). Surakarta ruled by hereditary monarchs, who were given the unique Javanese cultural title Susuhunan. Since both Surakarta and Yogyakarta had become vassal states of the Dutch, traditional court arts, notably gamelan, were developed to demonstrate cultural power instead of developing military power.

1

Pakubuwono X Perhaps the most significant ruler of the 20th century was Pakubuwono X. His relationship with the Dutch, his large family, and his popularity contributed to perhaps the largest funeral procession that ever occurred in Surakarta. He had spent a large amount of money on the Royal Graveyard at Imogiri, both the main sections of the graveyard and the new section that he was buried in. In the era just prior to independence Surakarta had European, Chinese, and Arab quarters.

1

Struggle for independence After hearing the proclamation of Indonesian Independence, Pakubuwono XII declared Surakarta a part of the Republic of Indonesia. Because of this support, President Sukarno declared Surakarta a Special Region with the Susuhunan, Pakubuwono XII, continuing as governor. This terminology was also used for the Special Region of Yogyakarta, which continues to be legally governed by its sultan to this day. However, unlike Yogyakarta, Surakarta had intense, organized resistance to the continuation of the monarchy. In October 1945, a republican movement was established in Surakarta led by Tan Malaka, a member of the Indonesian Communist Party.

On October 17, the vizier of Surakarta, KRMH Sosrodiningrat V (a member of the BPUPK), was kidnapped. The new vizier, KRMT Yudonagoro, and 9 other court officials were also kidnapped by the same movement in March 1946, including heir to the viziership KRMTH Wuryaningrat.

In response, Prime Minister of Indonesia Sutan Syahrir met with Wuryaningrat and other Surakarta leaders in May and agreed to abolish the established government entirely.

On June 16, 1946, the Surakarta "special region" was abolished and replaced with a regency (kabupaten), administered by a republican government outside the control of the Susuhunan and his court. This event is commemorated as the birthday of the city of Surakarta.

On June 26, Prime Minister Sutan Syahrir was kidnapped in Surakarta by a rebel movement led by Major General Soedarsono, the commander of the 3rd division. President Sukarno was angry at this kidnapping and on July 1, 1946, 14 communist leaders including Tan Malaka were arrested by Indonesian police on Sukarno's instructions. However, Soedarsono freed the rebel leaders immediately. Sukarno asked the local military commander in Surakarta, Lieutenant Colonel Suharto to arrest Major General Soedarsono and the rebel group.

Suharto refused to follow this command unless it was given directly by the Military Chief of Staff, General Soedirman. Sukarno was angry at this rejection of his commanding authority, and called Suharto a stubborn (koppig) officer.

Suharto pretended to support the rebellion and persuaded Soedarsono and his group to stay at his headquarters at Wiyoro, Surakarta for their own safety. Later that night he persuaded Soedarsono to meet President Sukarno at his palace the next morning. Suharto secretly informed the presidential guard troops about Soedarsono's plan on the next morning. On July 3, 1946, Soedarsono and his group were arrested by the presidential guard near the palace. Prime Minister Syahrir was released unharmed. Several months later, Maj. Gen. Soedarsono and his group were pardoned and released from prison.

However, this did not halt the ascendancy of the Communist Party in Surakarta. In November 1946, the communists kidnapped the regent and vice-regent and seized power for themselves, a coup quickly legitimated after the fact by Sukarno. In 1947, Amir Sjarifuddin appointed Wikana, a communist, as Surakarta's military governor.

In December 1948, the Dutch attacked and occupied the cities of Yogyakarta and Surakarta as part of Operation Kraai. The Indonesian Army, led by General Soedirman, started a guerrilla war from surrounding areas. The Dutch declared that the Republic had been destroyed and no longer existed. To disprove this, the Indonesian army conducted large-scale raids into the cities of Yogyakarta and Surakarta, called Serangan Oemoem. On August 7, 1949, Indonesian troops led by Slamet Riyadi managed to defeat the Dutch troops and occupied the city for several hours. To commemorate this event, the main street of the city of Surakarta was renamed Brigadier General Slamet Riyadi Street.

Surakarta remained under communist control until October 1965. Local government was unclear about how to proceed after the 30 September Movement and went about business as usual. As a result, Suharto's forces entered Surakarta without resistance, mobilized local youth paramilitaries, and indiscriminately slaughtered the entire local government.

1

Administrative divisions After Surakarta became a city, it was divided into five districts (kecamatan), each led by a camat, and subdivided into 51 kelurahan (now 54), each led by a lurah.

1

Greater Surakarta Surakarta as a densely-populated core city in Central Java, and its second city, spills considerably into neighboring regencies. Surakarta City and its surrounding regencies, Karanganyar, Sragen, Wonogiri, Sukoharjo, Klaten, and Boyolali, are collectively called the ex-Surakarta Residency (Dutch: Residentie Soerakarta).

Though a traffic study quotes the population as 1,158,000 as of 2008, this reflects only the continuously built-up area, as the city affects entire neighboring regencies by significantly driving up overall population densities in Sukoharjo Regency and Klaten Regency over the already dense countryside. Furthermore, the government of Indonesia officially defines a broader region as Surakarta's extended metropolitan zone, with the acronym "Subosukawonosraten" - for SUrakarta, BOyolaki, SUkoharjo, KAranganyar, WONOgiri, SRAgen, KlaTEN - as the city and the entire 6 surrounding regencies, which reflects a broader planning region, though not a core metropolitan area as some of its regencies are not particularly suburbanized. Both the metropolitan area and extended areas border Yogyakarta's metropolitan area, while only the extended metropolitan area borders Kedungsapur or Greater Semarang.

1

Economy The per capita GDP of Surakarta in 2009 was 16,813,058.62 IDR, the fourth highest in Central Java after Kudus, Cilacap, and Semarang. The living standard in 2009 was 723,000 IDR. The Consumer price index in January 2011 was 119.44.

1

Tourist Industry One main tourist attraction of Surakarta is the Keraton Surakarta, the palace of Susuhunan Pakubuwono, also the Princely Javanese court of Mangkunegaran. Pasar Gede market is often visited by tourists, mostly for its unique architecture and fame as the biggest traditional market in the Solo area. The Pasar Klewer is famous for its batiks in all prices and qualities, while the Pasar Triwindhu located near Mangkunegaran palace specialises in antiques. Taman Sriwedari is a popular local entertainment park featuring a children's playground, dangdut music performance and Wayang Wong traditional Javanese dance performance almost every night. Near the park is Radyapustaka Museum, one of the oldest museums in Indonesia, with a collection of Javanese cultural artefacts. The traditional batik village of Laweyan and Kampung Batik Kauman, located in the south-west part of the city and the city centre respectively, are famous for producing fine quality Javanese batik.

Within Surakarta tourists can also use the Jaladara old steam train which was launched on in September 2009 for 5.6ย km connecting Purwosari Station and Solo Kota Station. In 2011 there were 60 trips and in 2012 will be 80 trips.

1

Sport Surakarta has a long sport history and tradition. In 1923 Solo already had a football club, one of the earliest clubs in Indonesia (at that time still the Dutch Indies), called Persis Solo. Persis Solo was a giant club in the Dutch Indies and still exists, but is past its heyday. During the Perserikatan tournament, Persis became seven-time champion. Currently it plays in the Liga 1 Indonesia. Other than Persis, several clubs have existed in Solo: Arseto, Pelita Solo, Persijatim Solo FC, and lastly Solo FC played in the Indonesian Premier League in 2011. Both clubs that still exist, Persis and Solo FC, have made Manahan Stadium their home ground. Manahan Stadium is one of the best sports stadiums in Central Java, with more than 25,000 seats, and has several times hosted national and international matches. It was recently the venue for the AFC Champions Cup 2007, the final venue of the Indonesian Cup 2010, and the opening venue for the Indonesian Premiere League on January 15, 2011.

Surakarta is also home to the West Bandits Solo of the Indonesian Basketball League. They play their home games in the Sritex Arena.

1

Disabled sports Surakarta is the first to host National Paralympic Week in 1957 and hosted several of the subsequent games. As a result, Surakarta has sport facilities sufficient for holding international disabled sports games.

In 1986, Surakarta hosted the 4th FESPIC Games, making the games the first in Indonesian para-sport history in which international disabled sports games were held. The city is also the host city of the 2011 ASEAN Para Games, instead of Jakarta and Palembang, where the main games were held, as well as the 2022 ASEAN Para Games where the original host, Vietnam, only held the 2021 Southeast Asian Games due to COVID-19 crisis.

1

Transport: Air Adisumarmo International Airport (IATA code: SOC) has direct flights to Kuala Lumpur by Malaysia Airlines and during the hajj season, Saudi Arabia, as well as regular flights to Jakarta by Garuda Indonesia, Sriwijaya Air, Lion Air and Citilink. The airport is located 14ย km (8.7ย mi) north of the city. In 2009 Adisumarmo had 2,060 outbound domestic flights and 616 outbound international flights.

1

Transport: Rail Surakarta has four train stations: Solo Balapan, Purwosari, Solo Jebres, and Solo Kota (Sangkrah). Solo Balapan is the largest station in Surakarta, and is the junction between Yogyakarta (westward), Semarang (northward), and Surabaya (eastward), while Purwosari is the junction located west of Solo Balapan, and has a connection to Wonogiri (southward). There are several direct lines to other cities, such as Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Semarang, Ngawi and Malang. For regional traffic, a commuter train KRL Commuterline Yogyakartaโ€“Solo connects Surakarta and Yogyakarta.

On 26 July 2011 the Bathara Kresna Rail Bus has been launched to serve Purwosariโ€“Wonogiri route, but for the moment only Purwosari-Sukoharjo trackage was ready due to there are 99 bridges should be strengthen between Sukoharjo-Wonogiri. Until April 2012, Surakarta-Wonogiri railbus is still in a big question mark due to the 12 tons railbuses are considered too heavy for existing railroad track that only has the capacity of accommodating 10-ton vehicles, furthermore PT KAI have proposed a fare between Rp30,000 ($3.27) and Rp40,000 ($4.36) per passenger, while Surakarta administration wants tickets to be priced much lower between Rp5,000 ($0.54) and Rp7,000 ($0,76).

In 2019, Adisumarmo Airport Rail Link began operation, linking Solo Balapan Station to a station inside Adisumarmo International Airport complex.

1

Transport: Road Tirtonadi Terminal is the largest bus terminal in Surakarta. Surakarta is situated on Indonesian National Route 15, which connects it to Yogyakarta and Waru (Sidoarjo). Semarangโ€“Solo Toll Road connects the city with provincial capital Semarang. In 2009 the total extent of roadways in the city was 705.34ย km: 13.15ย km state road, 16.33ย km province road, and 675.86ย km local road. The number of bus companies was 23, and the total number of buses operating was 1,115 intra-provincial buses and 1,107 inter-provincial.

In 2010, the government of Surakarta launched a new bus service named Batik Solo Trans (BST), which resembles TransJakarta bus rapid transit service. As of 2017, it has only three routes. A single trip costs Rp.3000, Rp.1500 for students. A special ticket for the trip from or to the airport costs Rp.7000.

1
Surakarta, Central Java Province, Indonesia 
<b>Surakarta, Central Java Province, Indonesia</b>
Image: Photo by Visual Karsa on Unsplash

Surakarta was ranked #468 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Surakarta has a population of over 575,200 people. Surakarta also forms the centre of the wider Surakarta metropolitan area which has a population of over 3,649,254 people.

To set up a UBI Lab for Surakarta see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Surakarta is a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network for Craft and Folk Art see: https://en.unesco.org/creative-cities

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Surakarta has links with:

๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Algiers, Algeria ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Bilbao, Spain ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฌ Montana, Bulgaria

Surakarta is an observer of the OWHC: Organization of World Heritage Cities with: ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Acre ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ช Agadez ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ Ahmedabad ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Aktau ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Alcalรก de Henares ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡พ Aleppo ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Algiers ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ Amber ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ Amer ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Amsterdam ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Amsterdam ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Amsterdam ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Andong ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Angra do Heroรญsmo ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Anuradhapura ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Aranjuez ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Arequipa ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Augsburg ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Avila ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Baeza ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ท Bam ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Bamberg ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Banskรก ล tiavnica ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Bardejov ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Bath ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Bath ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Beemster ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Belo Horizonte ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Bergama ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Bergen ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Bergen ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Berlin ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Berlin ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Berlin ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Berlin ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ญ Bern ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Bernau bei Berlin ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Bhaktapur ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ด Biertan ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Boeun ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Bolgar ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Bordeaux ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Brasรญlia ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ง Bridgetown ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ช Bruges ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ช Brussels ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡บ Budapest ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Bursa ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Buyeo ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cรกceres ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ Cairo ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ Camaguey ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Campeche ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Carcassonne ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด Cartagena ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cartagena ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ ฤŒeskรฝ Krumlov ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Chengde ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ป Cidade Velha ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Coimbra ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ Colonia del Sacramento ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Cรณrdoba ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ท Cรณrdoba ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cรณrdoba ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Coro ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cuenca ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Cuenca ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Cuernavaca ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Cusco ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ณ Dakar ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡พ Damascus ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Denpasar ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Derbent ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Dessau ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Diamantina ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Diyarbakฤฑr ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท Dubrovnik ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Dujiangyan ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Edinburgh ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Ejmiatsin ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Elvas ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ถ Erbil ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Essaouira ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น ร‰vora ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Fez ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Fontainebleau ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ Fray Bentos ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Galle ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡พ George Town ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ George Town ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡พ Ghadames ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Ghardaรฏa ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Gianyar ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Gochang County ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Gongju ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Goris City ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Granada ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Granada ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Grand-Bassam ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น Graz ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Guadalajara ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Guadalajara ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Guanajuato ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Guimarรฃes ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Gwangju ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Gyeongju ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Haenam ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Hamburg ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Hapcheon County ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡น Harar Jugol ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ Havana ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณ Hoi An ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณ Huแบฟ ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Hwasun County ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Ibiza ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Icherisheher ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Iksan ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Istanbul ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Jeddah ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Jerusalem ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Jerusalem ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Jongno-Gu ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Kairouan ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Kandy ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Karangasem ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Karlskrona ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Kathmandu ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Kazan ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Khiva ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Kolding ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Konya ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ช Kotor ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Krakรณw ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Kutnรก Hora ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต Kyลto ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Lalitpur ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ช Lamu ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Le Havre ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฏ Levuka ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Lijiang ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Lima ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Luang Prabang ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Lรผbeck ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Lunenburg ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡บ Luxembourg City ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Lviv ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Lyon ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ด Macau ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ Malacca City ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Marrakesh ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Meknes ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Mรฉrida ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Mรฉrida ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Mรฉrida ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Mexico City ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ Miagao ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Modena ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ช Mombasa ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Mont-Saint-Michel ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Morelia ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Moscow ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Moscow ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฆ Mostar ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Mozambique ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ญ Muharraq ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Nancy ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต Nara ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Naumburg ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฌ Nessebar ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Notodden ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Oaxaca ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Ohrid ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Olinda ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Ouro Preto ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Oviedo ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Oviedo ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Padula ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Palazzolo Acreide ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฆ Panama City ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Paris ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Paris ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Paris ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท Patmos ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Philadelphia ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Porto ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ด Potosรญ ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Potsdam ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Potsdam ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Prague ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Provins ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Puebla ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Pyay ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Quรฉbec ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Quedlinburg ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Querรฉtaro ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Quito ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Rabat ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Rauma ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Regensburg ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท Rhodes ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ป Riga ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Rรญmac ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Rio de Janeiro ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Rotterdam ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Rรธros ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Safranbolu ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Saint Petersburg ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Saint-Louis ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Salamanca ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Salvador ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น Salzburg ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ San Antonio ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ San Antonio ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡จ San Cristรณbal de La Laguna ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น San Gimignano ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ San Miguel de Allende ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ San Pablo Villa de Mitla ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ช Sanaa ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด Santa Cruz de Mompox ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Santiago de Compostela ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Sรฃo Luรญs ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Segovia ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Selรงuk ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Seongbuk ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ช Shibam ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ด Sighiศ™oara ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Singapore ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Sintra ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Sousse ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท Split ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฒ St George's ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Stockholm ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Stralsund ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Strasbourg ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ด Sucre ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Suwon ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Suzdal ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Suzhou ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ช Tallinn ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Tarragona ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Tel Aviv ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Telฤ ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Telford ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Tรฉtouan ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Timbuktu ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Tinn ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Tlacotalpan ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Toledo ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Toledo ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ Toledo ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Toledo ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Toruล„ ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Tล™ebรญฤ ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ Trinidad ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท Trogir ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ณ Trujillo ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Trujillo ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Tunis ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Turkistan ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ รšbeda ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡น Valletta ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Valparaรญso ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฆ Vatican City ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Veliky Novgorod ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Vienna ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Vienna ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น Vienna ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ Vigan ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡น Vilnius ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Vinje ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Visby ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Warsaw ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Warsaw ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ผ Willemstad ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Wismar ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Xochimilco ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Yangsan ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Yaroslavl ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ท Yazd ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Yeongju ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Yerevan ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ช Zabid ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Zacatecas ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Zamoล›ฤ‡ ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฟ Zanzibar City

Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | Nomad

UNESCO Creative Cities for Craft and Folk Art include: ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Al-Ahsa ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡พ Areguรก ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ Aswan ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Ayacucho ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ Baguio ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ซ Bamiyan ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ซ Bamyan ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ท Bandar Abbas ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Barcelos ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Biella ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Bukhara ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ Cairo ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Caldas da Rainha ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Carrara ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Castelo Branco ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ Chiang Mai ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Chordeleg ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Durรกn ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Fabriano ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฌ Gabrovo ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณ Hoi An ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Howick ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Icheon ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ท Isfahan ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡น Jacmel ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ Jaipur ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Jinju ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Joรฃo Pessoa ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต Kanazawa ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Kargopol ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Kรผtahya ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Limoges ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Lubumbashi ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ด Madaba ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ด Monte Cristi ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ธ Nassau ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ซ Ouagadougou ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Paducah ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Pekalongan ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฏ Porto-Novo ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ San Cristรณbal de las Casas ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Santa Fe ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Shaki ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ช Sharjah ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Sheki ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฌ Sokodรฉ ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ Sukhothai ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ Sukhothai Thani ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Surakarta ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Tรฉtouan ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ Trinidad ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Tunis ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ณ Ulaanbaatar ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ช Viljandi

Antipodal to Surakarta is: -69.183,7.567

Locations Near: Surakarta 110.817,-7.56667

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Nusukan 110.821,-7.547 d: 2.3  

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Sukoharjo 110.833,-7.683 d: 13.1  

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Klaten 110.633,-7.633 d: 21.6  

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Boyolali 110.6,-7.517 d: 24.6  

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Sleman 110.357,-7.72 d: 53.5  

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Yogyakarta 110.35,-7.8 d: 57.6  

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Magelang 110.217,-7.467 d: 67.1  

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Ponorogo 111.45,-7.867 d: 77.3  

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Madiun 111.517,-7.617 d: 77.4  

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Temanggung 110.167,-7.3 d: 77.6  

Antipodal to: Surakarta -69.183,7.567

๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Guanare -69.749,9.044 d: 19839.5  

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด Arauca -70.758,7.079 d: 19833.1  

๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช San Fernando de Apure -67.47,7.893 d: 19822.9  

๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Acarigua -69.203,9.551 d: 19794.5  

๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช San Carlos -68.583,9.65 d: 19774.2  

๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Las Vegas -68.583,9.65 d: 19774.2  

๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Trujillo -70.417,9.367 d: 19773.3  

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด Puerto Carreรฑo -67.489,6.188 d: 19773.3  

๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Calabozo -67.428,8.922 d: 19770.1  

๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Mรฉrida -71.15,8.6 d: 19769.9  

Bing Map

Option 1