Singapore

History | British colonisation | History : World War II | Post-war period | Within Malaysia | Republic of Singapore | Economy | Geography | Nature | Land | Transport : Air | Sea | Tourist Industry | Education | Healthcare | Culture | Arts | Cuisine | Sport | Media

๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. Modern Singapore was founded in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles as a trading post of the British Empire. It is located off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bordering the Straits of Malacca to the west, the Riau Islands (Indonesia) to the south, and the South China Sea to the east. The country's territory is composed of one main island, 63 satellite islands and islets, and one outlying islet, the combined area of which has increased by 25% since the country's independence as a result of extensive land reclamation projects. It has the second greatest population density in the world. With a multicultural population and recognising the need to respect cultural identities, Singapore has four official languages; English, Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil. English is the lingua franca. Multiracialism is enshrined in the constitution and continues to shape national policies in education, housing, and politics.

Singapore developed rapidly to become one of the Four Asian Tigers based on external trade, becoming a highly developed country; it is ranked ninth on the UN Human Development Index and has the second-highest GDP per capita (PPP) in the world. It is a major financial and shipping hub, consistently ranked the most expensive city, and has been identified as a tax haven. Singapore is placed highly in key social indicators: education, healthcare, quality of life, personal safety, and housing, with a home-ownership rate of 91%. Singaporeans enjoy one of the world's longest life expectancies, fastest Internet connection speeds and one of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world.

One of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is also the headquarters of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events. Singapore is also a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement, and the Commonwealth of Nations.

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History In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity of the accounts as given in the Malay Annals is the subject of academic debates, it is nevertheless known from various documents that Singapore in the 14th century, then known as Temasek, was a trading port under the influence of both the Majapahit Empire and the Siamese kingdoms, and was a part of the Indosphere. These Indianised kingdoms were characterised by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability. Historical sources also indicate that around the end of the 14th century, its ruler Parameswara was attacked by either the Majapahit or the Siamese, forcing him to move to Malacca where he founded the Sultanate of Malacca. Archaeological evidence suggests that the main settlement on Fort Canning was abandoned around this time, although a small trading settlement continued in Singapore for some time afterwards. In 1613, Portuguese raiders burned down the settlement, and the island faded into obscurity for the next two centuries. By then, Singapore was nominally part of the Johor Sultanate. The wider maritime region and much trade was under Dutch control for the following period after the Dutch conquest of Malacca.

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British colonisation The British governor Stamford Raffles arrived in Singapore on 28 January 1819 and soon recognised the island as a natural choice for the new port. The island was then nominally ruled by Tengku Abdul Rahman, the Sultan of Johor, who was controlled by the Dutch and the Bugis. However, the Sultanate was weakened by factional division: Abdul Rahman, the Temenggong of Johor to Tengku Abdul Rahman, as well as his officials, were loyal to the Sultan's elder brother Tengku Long, who was living in exile in Penyengat Island, Riau Islands. With the Temenggong's help, Raffles managed to smuggle Tengku Long back into Singapore. Raffles offered to recognise Tengku Long as the rightful Sultan of Johor, under the title of Sultan Hussein, as well as provide him with a yearly payment of $5000 and another $3000 to the Temenggong; in return, Sultan Hussein would grant the British the right to establish a trading post on Singapore. The Treaty of Singapore was signed on 6 February 1819.

In 1824, a further treaty with the Sultan led to the entire island becoming a British possession. In 1826, Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements, then under the jurisdiction of British India. Singapore became the regional capital in 1836. Prior to Raffles' arrival, there were only about a thousand people living on the island, mostly indigenous Malays along with a handful of Chinese. By 1860 the population had swelled to over 80,000, more than half being Chinese. Many of these early immigrants came to work on the pepper and gambier plantations. In 1867, the Straits Settlements were separated from British India, coming under the direct control of Britain. Later, in the 1890s, when the rubber industry became established in Malaya and Singapore, the island became a global centre for rubber sorting and export.

Singapore was not greatly affected by the First World War (1914โ€“18), as the conflict did not spread to Southeast Asia. The only significant event during the war was the 1915 Singapore Mutiny by Muslim sepoys from British India, who were garrisoned in Singapore. After hearing rumours that they were to be sent to fight the Ottoman Empire, a Muslim state, the soldiers rebelled, killing their officers and several British civilians before the mutiny was suppressed by non-Muslim troops arriving from Johore and Burma.

After World War I, the British built the large Singapore Naval Base as part of the defensive Singapore strategy. Originally announced in 1921, the construction of the base proceeded at a slow pace until the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Costing $60ย million and not fully completed in 1938, it was nonetheless the largest dry dock in the world, the third-largest floating dock, and had enough fuel tanks to support the entire British navy for six months. The base was defended by heavy 15-inch (380ย mm) naval guns stationed at Fort Siloso, Fort Canning and Labrador, as well as a Royal Air Force airfield at Tengah Air Base. Winston Churchill touted it as the "Gibraltar of the East", and military discussions often referred to the base as simply "East of Suez". However, the British Home Fleet was stationed in Europe, and the British could not afford to build a second fleet to protect their interests in Asia. The plan was for the Home Fleet to sail quickly to Singapore in the event of an emergency. As a consequence, after World War II broke out in 1939, the fleet was fully occupied with defending Britain, leaving Singapore vulnerable to Japanese invasion.

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History: World War II During the Pacific War, the Japanese invasion of Malaya culminated in the Battle of Singapore. When the British force of 60,000 troops surrendered on 15 February 1942, British prime minister Winston Churchill called the defeat "the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history". British and Empire losses during the fighting for Singapore were heavy, with a total of nearly 85,000 personnel captured. About 5,000 were killed or wounded, of which Australians made up the majority. Japanese casualties during the fighting in Singapore amounted to 1,714 killed and 3,378 wounded. The occupation was to become a major turning point in the histories of several nations, including those of Japan, Britain, and Singapore. Japanese newspapers triumphantly declared the victory as deciding the general situation of the war. Between 5,000 and 25,000 ethnic Chinese people were killed in the subsequent Sook Ching massacre. British forces had planned to liberate Singapore in 1945; however, the war ended before these operations could be carried out.

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Post-war period After the Japanese surrender to the Allies on 15 August 1945, Singapore fell into a brief state of violence and disorder; looting and revenge-killing were widespread. British, Australian, and Indian troops led by Lord Louis Mountbatten returned to Singapore to receive the formal surrender of Japanese forces in the region from General Seishirล Itagaki on behalf of General Hisaichi Terauchi on 12 September 1945. Meanwhile, Tomoyuki Yamashita was tried by a US military commission for war crimes, but not for crimes committed by his troops in Malaya or Singapore. He was convicted and hanged in the Philippines on 23 February 1946.

Much of Singapore's infrastructure had been destroyed during the war, including those needed to supply utilities. A shortage of food led to malnutrition, disease, and rampant crime and violence. A series of strikes in 1947 caused massive stoppages in public transport and other services. However, by late 1947 the economy began to recover, facilitated by a growing international demand for tin and rubber. The failure of Britain to successfully defend its colony against the Japanese changed its image in the eyes of Singaporeans. British Military Administration ended on 1 April 1946, and Singapore became a separate Crown Colony. In July 1947, separate Executive and Legislative Councils were established and the election of six members of the Legislative Council was scheduled for the following year.

During the 1950s, Chinese communists, with strong ties to the trade unions and Chinese schools, waged a guerrilla war against the government, leading to the Malayan Emergency. The 1954 National Service riots, Hock Lee bus riots, and Chinese middle schools riots in Singapore were all linked to these events. David Marshall, pro-independence leader of the Labour Front, won Singapore's first general election in 1955. He led a delegation to London, and Britain rejected his demand for complete self-rule. He resigned and was replaced by Lim Yew Hock in 1956, and after further negotiations Britain agreed to grant Singapore full internal self-government for all matters except defence and foreign affairs. During the subsequent May 1959 elections, the People's Action Party (PAP) won a landslide victory. Governor Sir William Allmond Codrington Goode served as the first Yang di-Pertuan Negara (Head of State).

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Within Malaysia PAP leaders believed that Singapore's future lay with Malaya, due to strong ties between the two. It was thought that reuniting with Malaya would benefit the economy by creating a common market, alleviating ongoing unemployment woes in Singapore. However, a sizeable pro-communist wing of the PAP was strongly opposed to the merger, fearing a loss of influence, and hence formed the Barisan Sosialis, splitting from the PAP. The ruling party of Malaya, United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), was staunchly anti-communist, and it was suspected UMNO would support the non-communist factions of PAP. UMNO, initially sceptical of the idea of a merger due to distrust of the PAP government and concern that the large ethnic Chinese population in Singapore would alter the racial balance in Malaya on which their political power base depended, became supportive of the idea of the merger due to joint fear of a communist takeover.

On 27 May 1961, Malaya's prime minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman, made a surprise proposal for a new Federation called Malaysia, which would unite the current and former British possessions in the region: the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Brunei, North Borneo, and Sarawak. UMNO leaders believed that the additional Malay population in the Bornean territories would balance Singapore's Chinese population. The British government, for its part, believed that the merger would prevent Singapore from becoming a haven for communism. To obtain a mandate for a merger, the PAP held a referendum on the merger. This referendum included a choice of different terms for a merger with Malaysia and had no option for avoiding merger altogether. On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined with Malaya, the North Borneo, and Sarawak to form the new Federation of Malaysia under the terms of the Malaysia Agreement. Under this Agreement, Singapore had a relatively high level of autonomy compared to the other states of Malaysia.

Indonesia opposed the formation of Malaysia due to its own claims over Borneo and launched Konfrontasi ("Confrontation" in Indonesian) in response to the formation of Malaysia. On 10 March 1965, a bomb planted by Indonesian saboteurs on a mezzanine floor of MacDonald House exploded, killing three people and injuring 33 others. It was the deadliest of at least 42 bomb incidents which occurred during the confrontation. Two members of the Indonesian Marine Corps, Osman bin Haji Mohamed Ali and Harun bin Said, were eventually convicted and executed for the crime. The explosion caused US$250,000 (equivalent to US$2,321,542 in 2022) in damages to MacDonald House.

Even after the merger, the Singaporean government and the Malaysian central government disagreed on many political and economic issues. Despite an agreement to establish a common market, Singapore continued to face restrictions when trading with the rest of Malaysia. In retaliation, Singapore did not extend to Sabah and Sarawak the full extent of the loans agreed to for economic development of the two eastern states. Talks soon broke down, and abusive speeches and writing became rife on both sides. This led to communal strife in Singapore, culminating in the 1964 race riots. On 7 August 1965, Malaysian prime minister Tunku Abdul Rahman, seeing no alternative to avoid further bloodshed (and with the help of secret negotiations by PAP leaders, as revealed in 2015) advised the Parliament of Malaysia that it should vote to expel Singapore from Malaysia. On 9 August 1965, the Malaysian Parliament voted 126 to 0 to move a bill to amend the constitution, expelling Singapore from Malaysia, which left Singapore as a newly independent country.

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Republic of Singapore After being expelled from Malaysia, Singapore became independent as the Republic of Singapore on 9 August 1965, with Lee Kuan Yew and Yusof bin Ishak as the first prime minister and president respectively. In 1967, the country co-founded the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Race riots broke out once more in 1969. Lee Kuan Yew's emphasis on rapid economic growth, support for business entrepreneurship, and limitations on internal democracy shaped Singapore's policies for the next half-century. Economic growth continued throughout the 1980s, with the unemployment rate falling to 3% and real GDP growth averaging at about 8% up until 1999. During the 1980s, Singapore began to shift towards high-tech industries, such as the wafer fabrication sector, in order to remain competitive as neighbouring countries began manufacturing with cheaper labour. Singapore Changi Airport was opened in 1981 and Singapore Airlines was formed. The Port of Singapore became one of the world's busiest ports and the service and tourism industries also grew immensely during this period.

The PAP has remained in power since independence. Some activists and opposition politicians see the government's strict regulation of political and media activities as an infringement on political rights. In response, Singapore has seen several significant political changes, such as the introduction of the non-constituency members of parliament in 1984 to allow up to three losing candidates from opposition parties to be appointed as MPs. Group representation constituencies (GRCs) were introduced in 1988 to create multi-seat electoral divisions, intended to ensure minority representation in parliament. Nominated members of parliament were introduced in 1990 to allow non-elected non-partisan MPs. The constitution was amended in 1991 to provide for an elected president who has veto power in the use of past reserves and appointments to certain public offices.

In 1990, Goh Chok Tong succeeded Lee and became Singapore's second prime minister. During Goh's tenure, the country went through the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the 2003 SARS outbreak. In 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew, became the country's third prime minister. Lee Hsien Loong's tenure included the 2008 global financial crisis, the resolution of a dispute over land ownership at Tanjong Pagar railway station between Singapore and Malaysia, and the introduction of the two integrated resorts (IRs), located at the Marina Bay Sands and Resorts World Sentosa. The PAP suffered its worst ever electoral results in 2011, winning just 60% of votes, amidst debate over issues including the influx of foreign workers and the high cost of living. On 23 March 2015, Lee Kuan Yew died, and a one-week period of public mourning was observed nationwide. Subsequently, the PAP regained its dominance in Parliament through the September general election, receiving 69.9% of the popular vote, although this remained lower than the 2001 tally of 75.3% and the 1968 tally of 86.7%. The 2020 election held in July saw the PAP drop to 61% of the vote, while the Workers' Party took 10 of the 93 seats, the highest number ever won by another party.

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Economy Singapore has a highly developed market economy, based historically on extended entrepรดt trade. Along with Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan, Singapore is one of the Four Asian Tigers, and has surpassed its peers in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita.

The Singaporean economy is regarded as free, innovative, dynamic and business-friendly. For several years, Singapore has been one of the few countries with an AAA credit rating from the big three, and the only Asian country to achieve this rating. Singapore attracts a large amount of foreign investment as a result of its location, skilled workforce, low tax rates, advanced infrastructure and zero-tolerance against corruption. It is the world's most competitive economy, according to the World Economic Forum's ranking of 141 countries, with the 2nd highest GDP per capita. There are more than 7,000 multinational corporations from the United States, Japan, and Europe in Singapore. Roughly 44 percent of the Singaporean workforce is made up of non-Singaporeans. Despite market freedom, Singapore's government operations have a significant stake in the economy, contributing 22% of the GDP. The city is a popular location for conferences and events.

The currency of Singapore is the Singapore dollar (SGD or S$), issued by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS). It is interchangeable with the Brunei dollar. MAS manages its monetary policy by allowing the Singapore dollar exchange rate to rise or fall within an undisclosed trading band. This is different from most central banks, which use interest rates to manage policy. Singapore has the world's eleventh largest foreign reserves, and one of the highest net international investment position per capita.

In recent years, the country has been identified as an increasingly popular tax haven for the wealthy due to the low tax rate on personal income and tax exemptions on foreign-based income and capital gains. Australian millionaire retailer Brett Blundy and multi-billionaire Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverin are two examples of wealthy individuals who have settled in Singapore. In 2009, Singapore was removed from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "liste grise" of tax havens, and ranked fourth on the Tax Justice Network's 2015 Financial Secrecy Index of the world's off-shore financial service providers, banking one-eighth of the world's offshore capital, while "providing numerous tax avoidance and evasion opportunities". The Straits Times reported that Indonesia had decided to create tax havens on two islands near Singapore to bring Indonesian capital back into the tax base.

Singapore has the world's highest percentage of millionaires, with one out of every six households having at least one million US dollars in disposable wealth. This excludes property, businesses, and luxury goods, which if included would increase the number of millionaires, especially as property in Singapore is among the world's most expensive. Singapore is rated the world's most expensive city by the Economist Intelligence Unit. Singapore's ranking in the Human Development Index is 9th in the world, with an HDI value of 0.935.

Singapore is the world's 3rd largest foreign exchange centre, 6th largest financial centre, 2nd largest casino gambling market, 3rd largest oil-refining and trading centre, largest oil-rig producer and hub for ship repair services, and largest logistics hub. The economy is diversified, with its top contributors being financial services, manufacturing, and oil-refining. Its main exports are refined petroleum, integrated circuits, and computers, which constituted 27% of the country's GDP. Other significant sectors include electronics, chemicals, mechanical engineering, and biomedical sciences. There are more than 60 semiconductor companies in Singapore, which together constitute 11% of the global market share. The semiconductor industry alone contributes around 7% of Singapore's GDP.

Singapore's largest companies are in the telecommunications, banking, transportation, and manufacturing sectors, many of which started as state-run statutory corporations and have since been publicly listed on the Singapore Exchange. Such companies include Singapore Telecommunications (Singtel), Singapore Technologies Engineering, Keppel Corporation, Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC), Development Bank of Singapore (DBS), and United Overseas Bank (UOB). In 2011, amidst the global financial crisis, OCBC, DBS and UOB were ranked by Bloomberg Businessweek as the world's 1st, 5th, and 6th strongest banks in the world, respectively. It is home to the headquarters of 3 Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest in the region.

The nation's best known global companies include Singapore Airlines, Changi Airport, and the Port of Singapore, all of which are among the most-awarded in their respective fields. Singapore Airlines was ranked as Asia's most-admired company, and the world's 19th most-admired company in 2015 by Fortuneโ€™s annual "50 most admired companies in the world" industry surveys. Other awards it has received include the US-based Travel + Leisureโ€™s Best International Airline award, which it has won for 20 consecutive years. Changi Airport connects over 100 airlines to more than 300 cities. The strategic international air hub has more than 480 World's Best Airport awards as of 2015, and is known as the most-awarded airport in the world. Over ten free-trade agreements have been signed with other countries and regions. Singapore is the second-largest foreign investor in India. It is the 14th largest exporter and the 15th largest importer in the world.

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Geography Singapore consists of 63 islands, including the main island, Pulau Ujong. There are two man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia: the Johorโ€“Singapore Causeway in the north and the Tuas Second Link in the west. Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's smaller islands. The highest natural point is Bukit Timah Hill at 163.63ย m (537ย ft). Under British rule, Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands were part of Singapore, and both were transferred to Australia in 1957. Pedra Branca is the nation's easternmost point.

Land reclamation projects have increased Singapore's land area from 580ย kmยฒ (220ย sqย mi) in the 1960s to 710ย kmยฒ (270ย sqย mi) by 2015, an increase of some 22% (130ย kmยฒ). The country is projected to reclaim another 56ย kmยฒ (20ย sqย mi). Some projects involve merging smaller islands through land reclamation to form larger, more functional and habitable islands, as has been done with Jurong Island. The type of sand used in reclamation is found in rivers and beaches, rather than deserts, and is in great demand worldwide. In 2010 Singapore imported almost 15 million tons of sand for its projects, the demand being such that Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam have all restricted or barred the export of sand to Singapore in recent years. As a result, in 2016 Singapore switched to using polders for reclamation, in which an area is enclosed and then pumped dry.

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Nature Singapore's urbanisation means that it has lost 95% of its historical forests, and now over half of the naturally occurring fauna and flora in Singapore is present in nature reserves, such as the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and the Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve, which comprise only 0.25% of Singapore's land area. In 1967, to combat this decline in natural space, the government introduced the vision of making Singapore a "garden city", aiming to improve quality of life. Since then, nearly 10% of Singapore's land has been set aside for parks and nature reserves. The government has created plans to preserve the country's remaining wildlife. Singapore's well known gardens include the Singapore Botanic Gardens, a 161-year-old tropical garden and Singapore's first UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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Land Singapore has a road system covering 3,356 km (2,085ย mi), which includes 161 km (100ย mi) of expressways. The Singapore Area Licensing Scheme, implemented in 1975, became the world's first congestion pricing scheme, and included other complementary measures such as stringent car ownership quotas and improvements in mass transit. Upgraded in 1998 and renamed Electronic Road Pricing (ERP), the system introduced electronic toll collection, electronic detection, and video surveillance technology. A satellite-based system was due to replace the physical gantries by 2020, but has been delayed until 2026 due to global shortages in the supply of semiconductors. As Singapore is a small island with a high population density, the number of private cars on the road is restricted with a pre-set car population quota, to curb pollution and congestion. Car buyers must pay for Additional Registration Fees (ARF) duties of either 100%, 140%, 180% or 220% of the vehicle's Open Market Value (OMV), and bid for a Singaporean Certificate of Entitlement (COE) (that varies twice a month in supply based on the number of car registrations and de-registrations), which allows the car to be driven on the road for maximum period of 10 years. Car prices are generally significantly higher in Singapore than in other English-speaking countries. As with most Commonwealth countries, vehicles on the road and people walking on the streets keep to the left (left-hand traffic).

Singapore's public transport network is shaped up with trains (consisting of the MRT and LRT systems), buses and taxis. There are currently six MRT lines (North South MRT line, East West MRT line, North East MRT line, Circle MRT line, Downtown MRT line and Thomson-East Coast MRT line), three LRT lines serving the neighbourhoods of Bukit Panjang and Choa Chu Kang (Bukit Panjang LRT line), Sengkang (Sengkang LRT line) and Punggol (Punggol LRT line), and more than 300 bus routes in operation. Taxis are a popular form of transport as the fares are relatively affordable when compared to many other developed countries, whilst cars in Singapore are the most expensive to own worldwide.

The Johorโ€“Singapore Causeway (connecting Singapore with Johor Bahru, Malaysia) is the busiest international land border crossing in the world, whereby approximately 350,000 travellers cross the border checkpoints of both Woodlands Checkpoint and Sultan Iskandar Building daily (with an annual total of 128 million travellers).

The Land Transport Authority (LTA) is responsible for all land transport-related infrastructure and operations in Singapore.

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Transport: Air Singapore is a major international transport hub in Asia, serving some of the busiest sea and air trade routes. Changi Airport is an aviation centre for Southeast Asia and a stopover on Qantas' Kangaroo Route between Sydney and London. There are two civilian airports in Singapore, Singapore Changi Airport and Seletar Airport. Singapore Changi Airport hosts a network of over 100 airlines connecting Singapore to some 300 cities in about 70 countries and territories worldwide. It has been rated one of the best international airports by international travel magazines, including being rated as the world's best airport for the first time in 2006 by Skytrax. Singapore Changi Airport also had the second- and third-busiest international air routes in the world; the Jakarta-Singapore airport pair had 4.8 million passengers carried in 2018, whilst the Singapore-Kuala Lumpur airport pair had 4.5 million passengers carried in 2018, both trailing only behind Hong Kong-Taipei (6.5 million).

Singapore Airlines, which is the flag carrier of Singapore, has been regarded as a 5-star airline by Skytrax and been in the world top 10 list of airlines for multiple consecutive years. Changi Airport had also been rated as the world's best airport from 2013 to 2020 before being superseded by Hamad International Airport in Doha; it reclaimed this title in 2023.

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Sea The Port of Singapore, managed by port operators PSA International and Jurong Port, was the world's second-busiest port in 2019 in terms of shipping tonnage handled, at 2.85ย billion gross tons (GT), and in terms of containerised traffic, at 37.2ย million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs). It is also the world's second-busiest, behind Shanghai, in terms of cargo tonnage with 626ย million tons handled. In addition, the port is the world's busiest for transshipment traffic and the world's biggest ship refuelling centre.

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Tourist Industry Tourism is a major industry and contributor to the Singaporean economy, attracting 18.5 million international tourists in 2018, more than three times Singapore's total population. Singapore is the 5th most visited city in the world, and 2nd in the Asia-Pacific. In 2019 tourism contributed directly to about 4% of Singapore's GDP, down from 2016, when tourism contributed, directly and indirectly, to around 9.9% of Singapore's GDP. Altogether, the sector generated approximately 8.6% of Singapore's employment in 2016.

The Singapore Tourism Board (STB) is the statutory board under the Ministry of Trade and Industry which is tasked with the promotion of the country's tourism industry. In August 2017 the STB and the Economic Development Board (EDB) unveiled a unified brand, Singapore โ€“ Passion Made Possible, to market Singapore internationally for tourism and business purposes. The Orchard Road district, which contains multi-storey shopping centres and hotels, can be considered the centre of shopping and tourism in Singapore. Other popular tourist attractions include the Singapore Zoo, River Safari and Night Safari. The Singapore Zoo has embraced the open zoo concept whereby animals are kept in enclosures, separated from visitors by hidden dry or wet moats, instead of caging the animals, and the River Safari has 300 species of animals, including numerous endangered species. Singapore promotes itself as a medical tourism hub, with about 200,000 foreigners seeking medical care there each year. Singapore medical services aim to serve at least one million foreign patients annually and generate US$3ย billion in revenue. In 2015, Lonely Planet and The New York Times listed Singapore as their top and 6th best world destinations to visit, respectively.

Well-known landmarks include the Merlion, Marina Bay Sands, Gardens by the Bay, the Jewel, the Orchard Road shopping belt, the resort island of Sentosa, and the Singapore Botanic Gardens, Singapore's first UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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Education Education for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels is mostly supported by the state. All institutions, public and private, must be registered with the Ministry of Education (MOE). English is the language of instruction in all public schools, and all subjects are taught and examined in English except for the "mother tongue" language paper. While the term "mother tongue" in general refers to the first language internationally, in Singapore's education system, it is used to refer to the second language, as English is the first language. Students who have been abroad for a while, or who struggle with their "Mother Tongue" language, are allowed to take a simpler syllabus or drop the subject.

Education takes place in three stages: primary, secondary, and pre-university education, with the primary education being compulsory. Students begin with six years of primary school, which is made up of a four-year foundation course and a two-year orientation stage. The curriculum is focused on the development of English, the mother tongue, mathematics, and science. Secondary school lasts from four to five years, and is divided between Express, Normal (Academic), and Normal (Technical) streams in each school, depending on a student's ability level. The basic coursework breakdown is the same as in the primary level, although classes are much more specialised. Pre-university education takes place at either the 21 Junior Colleges or the Millennia Institute, over a period of two and three years respectively. As alternatives to pre-university education, however, courses are offered in other post-secondary education institutions, including the 5 polytechnics and 3 ITE colleges. Singapore has six public universities, of which the National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University are among the top 20 universities in the world.

National examinations are standardised across all schools, with a test taken after each stage. After the first six years of education, students take the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE), which determines their placement at secondary school. At the end of the secondary stage, O-Level or N-Level exams are taken; at the end of the following pre-university stage, the GCE A-Level exams are taken. Some schools have a degree of freedom in their curriculum and are known as autonomous schools, for secondary education level and above.

Singapore is also an education hub, with more than 80,000 international students in 2006. 5,000 Malaysian students cross the Johorโ€“Singapore Causeway daily to attend schools in Singapore. In 2009, 20% of all students in Singaporean universities were international studentsโ€”the maximum cap allowed, a majority from ASEAN, China and India.

Singapore students have excelled in many of the world education benchmarks in maths, science and reading. In 2015, both its primary and secondary students rank first in OECD's global school performance rankings across 76 countriesโ€”described as the most comprehensive map of education standards. In 2016, Singapore students topped both the Program International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In the 2016 EF English Proficiency Index taken in 72 countries, Singapore place 6th and has been the only Asian country in the top ten.

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Healthcare Singapore has a generally efficient healthcare system, even though health expenditures are relatively low for developed countries. The World Health Organisation ranks Singapore's healthcare system as 6th overall in the world in its World Health Report. Singapore has had the lowest infant mortality rates in the world for the past two decades. In 2019, Singaporeans had the longest life expectancy of any country at 84.8 years. Women can expect to live an average of 87.6 years with 75.8 years in good health. The averages are lower for men. Singapore is ranked 1st on the Global Food Security Index.

As of December 2011 and January 2013, 8,800 foreigners and 5,400 Singaporeans were respectively diagnosed with HIV, but there are fewer than 10 annual deaths from HIV per 100,000 people. Adult obesity is below 10%.There is a high level of immunisation. In 2013, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Singapore as having the best quality of life in Asia and sixth overall in the world.

The government's healthcare system is based upon the "3M" framework. This has three components: Medifund, which provides a safety net for those not able to otherwise afford healthcare; Medisave, a compulsory national medical savings account system covering about 85% of the population; and Medishield, a government-funded health insurance program. Public hospitals in Singapore have a considerable autonomy in their management decisions, and notionally compete for patients, but remain in government ownership. A subsidy scheme exists for those on low income. In 2008, 32% of healthcare was funded by the government. Healthcare accounts for approximately 3.5% of Singapore's GDP.

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Culture Despite its small size, Singapore has a diversity of languages, religions, and cultures. Former prime ministers of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew and Goh Chok Tong, have stated that Singapore does not fit the traditional description of a nation, calling it a society-in-transition, pointing out the fact that Singaporeans do not all speak the same language, share the same religion, or have the same customs. Singaporeans who speak English as their native language would likely lean toward Western culture (along with either Christian culture or secularism), while those who speak Chinese as their native language mostly lean toward Chinese culture, which has linkages with Chinese folk religion, Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. Malay-speaking Singaporeans mostly lean toward Malay culture, which itself is closely linked to Islamic culture. Tamil-speaking Singaporeans mostly lean toward Tamil culture, which itself is mostly linked to Hindu culture. Racial and religious harmony is regarded as a crucial part of Singapore's success, and played a part in building a Singaporean identity.

When Singapore became independent from the United Kingdom in 1963, most Singaporean citizens were transient migrant labourers who had no intention of staying permanently. There was also a sizeable minority of middle-class, locally born peopleโ€”known as Peranakans or Baba-Nyonya-descendants of 15th- and 16th-century Chinese immigrants. With the exception of the Peranakans who pledged their loyalties to Singapore, most of the labourers' loyalties lay with their respective homelands of Malaya, China and India. After independence, the government began a deliberate process of crafting a uniquely Singaporean identity and culture. Singapore has a reputation as a nanny state. The government also places a heavy emphasis on meritocracy, where one is judged based on one's ability.

The national flower of Singapore is the hybrid orchid, Vanda 'Miss Joaquim', named in memory of a Singapore-born Armenian woman, who crossbred the flower in her garden at Tanjong Pagar in 1893. Singapore is known as the Lion City and many national symbols such as the coat of arms and the lion head symbol make use of a lion. Major religious festivals are public holidays.

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Arts During the 1990s the National Arts Council was created to spearhead the development of performing arts, along with visual and literary art forms. The National Gallery Singapore is the nation's flagship museum with some 8,000 works from Singaporean and other Southeast Asian artists. The Singapore Art Museum focuses on contemporary art. The Red Dot Design Museum celebrates exceptional art and design of objects for everyday life, hosting more than 1,000 items from 50 countries. The lotus-shaped ArtScience Museum hosts touring exhibitions that combine art with the sciences. Other major museums include the Asian Civilisations Museum, the Peranakan Museum, and The Arts House. The Esplanade is Singapore's largest performing arts centre. In 2016 alone, it was the site of 5,900 free art and culture events.

Literature of Singapore, or "SingLit", consists of a collection of literary works by Singaporeans written chiefly in the country's four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil. Singapore is increasingly regarded as having four sub-literatures instead of one. Many significant works have been translated and showcased in publications such as the literary journal Singa, published in the 1980s and 1990s with editors including Edwin Thumboo and Koh Buck Song, as well as in multilingual anthologies such as Rhythms: A Singaporean Millennial Anthology Of Poetry (2000), in which the poems were all translated three times each. A number of Singaporean writers such as Tan Swie Hian and Kuo Pao Kun have contributed work in more than one language.

Singapore has a diverse music culture that ranges from pop and rock, to folk and classical. Western classical music plays a significant role in the cultural life in Singapore, with the Singapore Symphony Orchestra (SSO) instituted in 1979. Other notable western orchestras in Singapore include Singapore National Youth Orchestra and the community-based Braddell Heights Symphony Orchestra. Many orchestras and ensembles are also found in secondary schools and junior colleges. Various communities have their own distinct ethnic musical traditions: Chinese, Malays, Indians, and Eurasians. With their traditional forms of music and various modern musical styles, the fusion of different forms account for the musical diversity in the country. The nation's lively urban musical scene has made it a centre for international performances and festivals in the region. Some of Singapore's best known pop singers include Stefanie Sun, JJ Lin, Liang Wern Fook, Taufik Batisah and Dick Lee, who is famous for composing National Day theme songs, including Home.

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Cuisine Singapore's diversity of cuisine is touted as a reason to visit the country, due to its combination of convenience, variety, quality, and price. Local food items generally relate to a particular ethnicity โ€“ Chinese, Malay and Indian; but the diversity of cuisine has increased further by the hybridisation of different styles (e.g., the Peranakan cuisine, a mix of Chinese and Malay cuisine). In hawker centres, cultural diffusion is exemplified by traditionally Malay hawker stalls also selling Tamil food. Hainanese chicken rice, based on the Hainanese dish Wenchang chicken, is considered Singapore's national dish.

The city-state has a burgeoning food scene ranging from hawker centres (open-air), food courts (air-conditioned), coffee shops (open-air with up to a dozen hawker stalls), cafes, fast food, simple kitchens, casual, celebrity and high-end restaurants. Cloud kitchens and food delivery are also on the rise, with 70% of residents ordering from delivery apps at least once a month. Many international celebrity chef restaurants are located within the integrated resorts. Religious dietary strictures exist (Muslims do not eat pork and Hindus do not eat beef), and there is also a significant group of vegetarians. The Singapore Food Festival which celebrates Singapore's cuisine is held annually in July.

Prior to the 1980s, street food was sold mainly by immigrants from China, India, and Malaysia to other immigrants seeking a familiar taste. In Singapore, street food has long been associated with hawker centres with communal seating areas. Typically, these centres have a few dozen to hundreds of food stalls, with each specialising in one or more related dishes. While street food can be found in many countries, the variety and reach of centralised hawker centres that serve heritage street food in Singapore is unique. In 2018, there were 114 hawker centres spread across the city centre and heartland housing estates. They are maintained by the National Environment Agency, which also grades each food stall for hygiene. The largest hawker centre is located on the second floor of Chinatown Complex, and contains over 200 stalls. The complex is also home to the cheapest Michelin-starred meal in the world โ€“ a plate of soya-sauce chicken rice or noodles for S$2 (US$1.50). Two street food stalls in the city are the first in the world to be awarded a Michelin star, obtaining a single star each.

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Sport The development of private sports and recreation clubs began in the 19th century colonial Singapore, with clubs founded during this time including the Cricket Club, the Singapore Recreation Club, the Singapore Swimming Club, and the Hollandse Club. Weightlifter Tan Howe Liang was Singapore's first Olympic medalist, winning a silver at the 1960 Rome Games.

Indoor and water sports are some of the most popular sports in Singapore. At the 2016 Rio Olympics, Joseph Schooling won Singapore's first Olympic gold medal, claiming the 100-metre butterfly in a new Olympic record time of 50.39 seconds. Singapore sailors have had success on the international stage, with their Optimist team being considered among the best in the world. Despite its size, the country has dominated swim meets in the Southeast Asia Games. Its men's water polo team won the SEA Games gold medal for the 27th time in 2017, continuing Singapore sport's longest winning streak. Singapore hosted the inaugural 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, in which 3,600 athletes from 204 nations competed in 26 sports. The island is home to ONE Championship, the biggest Mixed Martial Arts promotion in Asia. Singapore's women's table tennis team were silver medalists at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. They became world champions in 2010 when they beat China at the World Team Table Tennis Championships in Russia, breaking China's 19-year winning streak. In 2021, Singapore's Loh Kean Yew achieved a "World Champion" status when he won a badminton gold at the 2021 BWF World Championships men's singles, which is one of the most prestigious badminton tournaments alongside the Summer Olympics badminton tournaments.

Singapore's football league, the Singapore Premier League, was launched in 1996 as the S.League and comprises eight clubs, including one foreign team. The Singapore Slingers is one of the inaugural teams in the ASEAN Basketball League, which was founded in October 2009. Kranji Racecourse is run by the Singapore Turf Club and hosts several meetings per week, including international racesโ€”notably the Singapore Airlines International Cup.

Singapore began hosting a round of the Formula One World Championship, the Singapore Grand Prix at the Marina Bay Street Circuit in 2008. It was the inaugural F1 night race, and the first F1 street race in Asia. It is considered a signature event on the F1 calendar.

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Media Companies linked to the government control much of the domestic media in Singapore. MediaCorp operates most free-to-air television channels and free-to-air radio stations in Singapore. There are a total of six free-to-air TV channels offered by MediaCorp. StarHub TV and Singtel TV also offer IPTV with channels from all around the world. SPH Media Trust, a body with close links to the government, controls most of the newspaper industry in Singapore.

Singapore's media industry has sometimes been criticised for being overly regulated and lacking in freedom by human rights groups such as Freedom House. Self-censorship among journalists is said to be common. In 2023, Singapore was ranked 129 on the Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders, up from 139 the previous year. The Media Development Authority regulates Singaporean media, claiming to balance the demand for choice and protection against offensive and harmful material. Private ownership of TV satellite dishes is banned.

Internet in Singapore is provided by state-owned Singtel, partially state-owned Starhub and M1 Limited as well as some other business internet service providers (ISPs) that offer residential service plans of speeds up to 2 Gbit/s as of spring 2015. Equinix (332 participants) and the Singapore Internet Exchange (70 participants) are Internet exchange points where Internet service providers and Content delivery networks exchange Internet traffic between their networks (autonomous systems) in various locations in Singapore. In the mid-1980s to 1990s, Singaporeans could also use the locally based videotext service Singapore Teleview to communicate with one another. The phrase Intelligent Island arose in the 1990s in reference to the island nation's early adaptive relationship with the internet.

In 2016, there were an estimated 4.7ย million internet users in Singapore, representing 82.5% of the population. The Singapore government does not engage in widespread censoring of the internet, but it maintains a list of one hundred websitesโ€”mostly pornographicโ€”that it blocks from home internet access as a "symbolic statement of the Singaporean community's stand on harmful and undesirable content on the Internet". Singapore has the world's highest smartphone penetration rates, in surveys by Deloitte and the Google Consumer Barometerโ€”at 89% and 85% of the population respectively in 2014. The overall mobile phone penetration rate is at 148 mobile phone subscribers per 100 people.

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Singapore 
Singapore
Image: Photo by Mike Enerio on Unsplash

Singapore is rated Alpha + by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) which evaluates and ranks the relationships between world cities in the context of globalisation. Alpha level cities are linked to major economic states and regions and into the world economy, Alpha + cities are highly integrated cities, filling advanced service needs

Singapore is the #4 city in the world according to the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) which evaluates and ranks the competitiveness of the major financial centres of the world according to a wide range of criteria โ€“ Human Capital, Business, Finance, Infrastructure and Reputation.

Singapore is the #5 city in the world according to the Global Power City Index (GPCI) which evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to their magnetism, or their comprehensive power to attract people, capital, and enterprises from around the world. It does so through measuring six key functions: Economy, Research and Development, Cultural Interaction, Liveability, Environment, and Accessibility.

Singapore is ranked #3 and rated B by the Global Urban Competitiveness Report (GUCR) which evaluates and ranks world cities in the context of economic competitiveness. B cities are international hub cities. Singapore was ranked #5 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Singapore has a population of over 60,520 people. Singapore also forms the centre of the wider Singapore Republic which has a population of over 5,637,000 people. Singapore is ranked #25 for startups with a score of 15.713.

To set up a UBI Lab for Singapore see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Singapore is a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network for Design see: https://en.unesco.org/creative-cities

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Singapore has links with:

๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ด Amman, Jordan ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ Johor Bahru, Malaysia ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ญ Manama, Bahrain ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ลŒsaka, Japan ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Singkawang, Indonesia

Singapore is a member of the OWHC: Organization of World Heritage Cities with: ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Acre ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ช Agadez ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ Ahmedabad ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Aktau ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Alcalรก de Henares ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡พ Aleppo ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Algiers ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ Amber ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ Amer ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Amsterdam ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Amsterdam ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Amsterdam ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Andong ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Angra do Heroรญsmo ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Anuradhapura ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Aranjuez ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Arequipa ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Augsburg ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Avila ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Baeza ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ท Bam ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Bamberg ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Banskรก ล tiavnica ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Bardejov ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Bath ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Bath ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Beemster ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Belo Horizonte ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Bergama ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Bergen ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Bergen ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Berlin ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Berlin ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Berlin ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Berlin ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ญ Bern ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Bernau bei Berlin ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Bhaktapur ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ด Biertan ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Boeun ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Bolgar ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Bordeaux ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Brasรญlia ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ง Bridgetown ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ช Bruges ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ช Brussels ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡บ Budapest ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Bursa ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Buyeo ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cรกceres ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ Cairo ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ Camaguey ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Campeche ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Carcassonne ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด Cartagena ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cartagena ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ ฤŒeskรฝ Krumlov ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Chengde ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ป Cidade Velha ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Coimbra ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ Colonia del Sacramento ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Cรณrdoba ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ท Cรณrdoba ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cรณrdoba ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Coro ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cuenca ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Cuenca ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Cuernavaca ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Cusco ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ณ Dakar ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡พ Damascus ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Denpasar ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Derbent ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Dessau ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Diamantina ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Diyarbakฤฑr ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท Dubrovnik ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Dujiangyan ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Edinburgh ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Ejmiatsin ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Elvas ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ถ Erbil ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Essaouira ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น ร‰vora ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Fez ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Fontainebleau ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ Fray Bentos ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Galle ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡พ George Town ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ George Town ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡พ Ghadames ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Ghardaรฏa ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Gianyar ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Gochang County ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Gongju ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Goris City ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Granada ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Granada ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Grand-Bassam ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น Graz ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Guadalajara ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Guadalajara ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Guanajuato ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Guimarรฃes ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Gwangju ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Gyeongju ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Haenam ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Hamburg ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Hapcheon County ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡น Harar Jugol ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ Havana ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณ Hoi An ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณ Huแบฟ ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Hwasun County ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Ibiza ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Icherisheher ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Iksan ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Istanbul ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Jeddah ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Jerusalem ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Jerusalem ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Jongno-Gu ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Kairouan ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Kandy ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Karangasem ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Karlskrona ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Kathmandu ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Kazan ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Khiva ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Kolding ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Konya ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ช Kotor ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Krakรณw ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Kutnรก Hora ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต Kyลto ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Lalitpur ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ช Lamu ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Le Havre ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฏ Levuka ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Lijiang ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Lima ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Luang Prabang ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Lรผbeck ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Lunenburg ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡บ Luxembourg City ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Lviv ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Lyon ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ด Macau ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ Malacca City ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Marrakesh ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Meknes ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Mรฉrida ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Mรฉrida ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Mรฉrida ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Mexico City ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ Miagao ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Modena ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ช Mombasa ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Mont-Saint-Michel ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Morelia ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Moscow ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Moscow ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฆ Mostar ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Mozambique ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ญ Muharraq ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Nancy ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต Nara ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Naumburg ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฌ Nessebar ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Notodden ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Oaxaca ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Ohrid ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Olinda ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Ouro Preto ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Oviedo ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Oviedo ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Padula ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Palazzolo Acreide ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฆ Panama City ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Paris ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Paris ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Paris ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท Patmos ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Philadelphia ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Porto ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ด Potosรญ ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Potsdam ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Potsdam ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Prague ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Provins ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Puebla ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Pyay ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Quรฉbec ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Quedlinburg ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Querรฉtaro ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Quito ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Rabat ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Rauma ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Regensburg ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท Rhodes ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ป Riga ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Rรญmac ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Rio de Janeiro ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Rotterdam ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Rรธros ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Safranbolu ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Saint Petersburg ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Saint-Louis ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Salamanca ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Salvador ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น Salzburg ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ San Antonio ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ San Antonio ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡จ San Cristรณbal de La Laguna ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น San Gimignano ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ San Miguel de Allende ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ San Pablo Villa de Mitla ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ช Sanaa ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด Santa Cruz de Mompox ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Santiago de Compostela ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Sรฃo Luรญs ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Segovia ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Selรงuk ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Seongbuk ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ช Shibam ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ด Sighiศ™oara ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Sintra ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Sousse ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท Split ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฒ St George's ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Stockholm ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Stralsund ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Strasbourg ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ด Sucre ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Surakarta ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Suwon ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Suzdal ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Suzhou ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ช Tallinn ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Tarragona ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Tel Aviv ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Telฤ ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Telford ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Tรฉtouan ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Timbuktu ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Tinn ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Tlacotalpan ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Toledo ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Toledo ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ Toledo ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Toledo ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Toruล„ ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Tล™ebรญฤ ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ Trinidad ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท Trogir ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ณ Trujillo ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Trujillo ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Tunis ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Turkistan ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ รšbeda ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡น Valletta ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Valparaรญso ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฆ Vatican City ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Veliky Novgorod ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Vienna ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Vienna ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น Vienna ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ Vigan ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡น Vilnius ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Vinje ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Visby ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Warsaw ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Warsaw ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ผ Willemstad ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Wismar ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Xochimilco ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Yangsan ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Yaroslavl ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ท Yazd ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Yeongju ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Yerevan ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ช Zabid ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Zacatecas ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Zamoล›ฤ‡ ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฟ Zanzibar City

Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | GPCI | GFCI | GaWC | GUCR | Nomad | StartupBlink

  • Dora Gordine |

    ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ป ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ช ๐Ÿด๓ ง๓ ข๓ ฅ๓ ฎ๓ ง๓ ฟ Sculptor/Painter/Architect Dora Gordine is associated with Singapore. In in 1949 she was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of British Sculptors (F.R.B.S.).

  • Cecil James Parker |

    ๐Ÿด๓ ง๓ ข๓ ฅ๓ ฎ๓ ง๓ ฟ Architect Cecil James Parker is associated with Singapore. From 1936 to 1940 he was State Architect in Jaipur, India.

  • Cyril Arthur Farey |

    ๐Ÿด๓ ง๓ ข๓ ฅ๓ ฎ๓ ง๓ ฟ Architect/Painter Cyril Arthur Farey is associated with Singapore.

  • Denis Santry |

    ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ช ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Architect/Silversmith/Sculptor/Cartoonist/Painter Denis Santry is associated with Singapore. He was at one time President of the Institute of Architects of Malaya.

  • Kevin Roche |

    ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ช ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Architect Kevin Roche is associated with Singapore. He was a member of the Accademia Nazionale di San Luca in Italy.

Antipodal to Singapore is: -76.167,-1.283

Locations Near: Singapore 103.833,1.28333

๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Queenstown 103.783,1.283 d: 5.6  

๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Bedok 103.917,1.317 d: 10  

๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Sengkang 103.883,1.383 d: 12.4  

๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Tampines 103.95,1.333 d: 14.1  

๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Jurong West 103.7,1.333 d: 15.8  

๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Woodlands 103.783,1.433 d: 17.6  

๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ Johor Bahru 103.765,1.459 d: 21  

๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ Pasir Gudang 103.933,1.5 d: 26.5  

๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ Iskandar Puteri 103.64,1.478 d: 30.4  

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Batam 104.033,1.083 d: 31.4  

Antipodal to: Singapore -76.167,-1.283

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Tena -77.816,-0.989 d: 19828.9  

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Ambato -78.62,-1.24 d: 19742.3  

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด Mocoa -76.648,1.147 d: 19739.6  

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Riobamba -78.633,-1.667 d: 19737.6  

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Ibarra -78.117,0.35 d: 19732.3  

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด Ipiales -77.633,0.817 d: 19730.3  

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Quito -78.512,-0.22 d: 19728.9  

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด San Juan de Pasto -77.267,1.2 d: 19713.1  

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด Pasto -77.278,1.2 d: 19712.6  

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Guaranda -79,-1.6 d: 19698.2  

Bing Map

Option 1