Salzburg is the fourth-largest city in Austria. The town is on the site of the Roman settlement of Iuvavum. Salzburg was founded as an episcopal see in 696 and became a seat of the archbishop in 798. Its main sources of income were salt extraction, trade and gold mining. The fortress of Hohensalzburg, one of the largest medieval fortresses in Europe, dates from the 11th century. In the 17th century, Salzburg became a centre of the Counter-Reformation, with monasteries and numerous Baroque churches built. Salzburg's historic centre (German: Altstadt) is renowned for its Baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centres north of the Alps. The historic centre was enlisted as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. The city has three universities and a large population of students. Tourists also visit Salzburg to tour the historic centre and the scenic Alpine surroundings. Salzburg was the birthplace of the 18th century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
As of 2017 Salzburg had a GDP per capita of €46,100, which was greater than the average for Austria and for most European countries.
Salzburg Hauptbahnhof is served by comprehensive rail connections, with frequent east–west trains serving Vienna, Munich, Innsbruck, and Zürich, including daily high-speed ICE services. North–south rail connections also serve popular destinations such as Venice and Prague. The city acts as a hub for southbound trains through the Alps into Italy.
Salzburg Airport has scheduled flights to European cities such as Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Brussels, Düsseldorf, and Zürich, as well as Hamburg, Edinburgh and Dublin. In addition to these, there are numerous charter flights.
In the main city, there is the Salzburg trolley-bus system and bus system with a total of more than 20 lines, and service every 10 minutes. Salzburg has an S-Bahn system with four Lines (S1, S2, S3, S11), trains depart from the main station every 30 minutes, and they are part of the ÖBB network. Suburb line number S1 reaches the world-famous Silent Night chapel in Oberndorf in about 25 minutes.
Salzburg was ranked #851 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Salzburg has a population of over 156,900 people. Salzburg is the #144 hipster city in the world, with a hipster score of 3.959 according to the Hipster Index which evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to the number of vegan eateries, coffee shops, tattoo studios, vintage boutiques, and record stores per 100,000 city residents.
Salzburg is twinned with: Reims, Marne, Grand Est, France, • Verona, Verona, Veneto, Italy, • León, Nicaragua, • Singida, Tanzania, • Busseto, Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, • Vilnius, Lithuania, • Dresden, Saxony, Germany, • Kawasaki, Japan, • Meran, South Tyrol, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy, • Shanghai, China, • Jahrom, Iran.