Oldenburg is an independent city in the district of Oldenburg in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. The city is officially named Oldenburg (Oldb) (Oldenburg in Oldenburg) to distinguish from Oldenburg in Holstein. The city is situated on the rivers Hunte and Haaren, in the north-western region between the cities of Bremen in the east and Groningen (Netherlands) in the west. Oldenburg is part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region.
The city centre of Oldenburg is surrounded by a ring of freeways (autobahns) consisting of A 28, A 29 and A 293. Because of this, Oldenburg is connected to the nation-wide network of federal autobahns, as well as to the international E-road network (German: Europastraßen).
Oldenburg Central Station, Oldenburg (Oldb) Hauptbahnhof, is at the intersection of the railway lines Norddeich Mole—Leer—Oldenburg—Bremen and Wilhelmshaven—Oldenburg—Osnabrück, with Intercity services to Berlin, Leipzig and Dresden and InterCityExpress services to Frankfurt and Munich.
Oldenburg is only about half an hour drive from Bremen Airport (about 50 km | 31 miles). The small Hatten Airfield, (Flugplatz Oldenburg-Hatten ICAO airport code: EDWH), is located about 17 km south-west of Oldenburg. It serves to small aircraft (private planes, gliders, balloons, and helicopters). A flight training school is also located there, and small planes can be chartered.
Oldenburg is connected to shipping through the Küstenkanal, a ship canal connecting the rivers Ems and Weser. With 1.6 million tons of goods annually, it is the most important non-coastal harbour in Lower Saxony. Bicycles play a very important part in personal transport.
The city is surrounded by large agricultural areas, about 80% of which is grassland. There are farms near and even a few within city limits. Predominant agricultural activities of the region are the cultivation of livestock, especially dairy cows and other grazing animals, crops such as grains for food and animal feed, as well as asparagus, corn, and kale.
Sea salt production in the Oldenburg region has been used since the 15th century to supply the huge salt demand in the Baltic region. Peat extraction in the area continued for many centuries until it was replaced by coal mines.
Oldenburg has a population of over 157,706 people. Oldenburg also forms part of the wider Bremen-Oldenburg metropolitan area which has a population of over 2,400,000 people. Oldenburg is the #354 hipster city in the world, with a hipster score of 2.1303 according to the Hipster Index which evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to the number of vegan eateries, coffee shops, tattoo studios, vintage boutiques, and record stores per 100,000 city residents.
Oldenburg is twinned with: Høje-Taastrup, Denmark • Cholet, France • Groningen, Netherlands • Makhachkala, Russia • Rügen (district), Germany • Mateh Asher, Israel • Kingston upon Thames, England, United Kingdom • Buffalo City, South Africa • Qingdao, China • Xi'an, China.