Montreal, Quebec, Canada

History : Pre-European contact : Early European settlement (1600–1760) | Economy | Higher education (English) | Higher education (French)

🇨🇦 Montreal, is a city in province of Quebec, Canada. Founded in 1642 as Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which got its name from the same origin as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard.


History: Pre-European contact Archaeological evidence in the region indicate that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages. The Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee (then based in present-day New York), established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century. The French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, and estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have effectively been removed.


History: Early European settlement (1600–1760) In 1603, French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley. This is believed to be due to outmigration, epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611, Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal on a site initially named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary who was seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639, Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives.

Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, then age 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury. The colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec and arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal island, with Maisonneuve as its first governor. The settlement included a chapel and a hospital, under the command of Jeanne Mance. By 1643, Ville-Marie had come under Iroquois raids. In 1652, Maisonneuve returned to France to raise 100 volunteers to bolster the colonial population. If the effort had failed, Montreal was to be abandoned and the survivors re-located downriver to Quebec City. Before these 100 arrived in the fall of 1653, the population of Montreal was barely 50 people.

French authorities surrender the city of Montreal to the British after the Articles of Capitulation was signed in 1760.

By 1685, Ville-Marie was home to some 600 colonists, most of them living in modest wooden houses. Ville-Marie became a centre for the fur trade and a base for further exploration. In 1689, the English-allied Iroquois attacked Lachine on the Island of Montreal, committing the worst massacre in the history of New France. By the early 18th century, the Sulpician Order was established there. To encourage French settlement, it wanted the Mohawk to move away from the fur trading post at Ville-Marie. It had a mission village, known as Kahnewake, south of the St Lawrence River. The fathers persuaded some Mohawk to make a new settlement at their former hunting grounds north of the Ottawa River. This became Kanesatake. In 1745, several Mohawk families moved upriver to create another settlement, known as Akwesasne. All three are now Mohawk reserves in Canada. The Canadian territory was ruled as a French colony until 1760, when Montreal fell to a British offensive during the Seven Years' War. The colony then surrendered to Great Britain.

Ville-Marie was the name for the settlement that appeared in all official documents until 1705, when Montreal appeared for the first time, although people referred to the "Island of Montreal" long before then.


Economy Montreal has the second-largest economy of Canadian cities based on GDP and the largest in Quebec. In 2014, Metropolitan Montreal was responsible for CA$118.7 billion of Quebec's CA$340.7 billion GDP. The city is today an important centre of commerce, finance, industry, technology, culture, world affairs and is the headquarters of the Montreal Exchange. In recent decades, the city was widely seen as weaker than that of Toronto and other major Canadian cities, but it has recently experienced a revival. The Port of Montreal is one of the largest inland ports in the world, handling over 26 million tonnes of cargo annually.

Industries include aerospace, electronic goods, pharmaceuticals, printed goods, software engineering, telecommunications, textile and apparel manufacturing, tobacco, petrochemicals, and transportation. The service sector is also strong and includes civil, mechanical and process engineering, finance, higher education, and research and development. In 2002, Montreal was the fourth-largest centre in North America in terms of aerospace jobs. The Port of Montreal is one of the largest inland ports in the world handling 26 million tonnes of cargo annually. As one of the most important ports in Canada, it remains a transshipment point for grain, sugar, petroleum products, machinery, and consumer goods. For this reason, Montreal is the railway hub of Canada and has always been an extremely important rail city; it is home to the headquarters of the Canadian National Railway.

The headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency is in Longueuil, south-east of Montreal. Montreal also hosts the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, a United Nations body); the World Anti-Doping Agency (an Olympic body); the Airports Council International (the association of the world's airports – ACI World); the International Air Transport Association (IATA), IATA Operational Safety Audit and the International Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce (IGLCC), as well as some other international organisations in various fields.

Montreal is a centre of film and television production. The headquarters of Alliance Films and five studios of the Academy Award-winning documentary producer National Film Board of Canada are in the city, as well as the head offices of Telefilm Canada, the national feature-length film and television funding agency and Télévision de Radio-Canada. Given its eclectic architecture and broad availability of film services and crew members, Montreal is a popular filming location for feature-length films, and sometimes stands in for European locations. The city is also home to many recognised cultural, film and music festivals (Just For Laughs, Just For Laughs Gags, Montreal International Jazz Festival, and others), which contribute significantly to its economy. It is also home to one of the world's largest cultural enterprises, the Cirque du Soleil.

Tour de la Bourse has been home to the Montreal Exchange from 1965 to 2018. The Exchange is a derivatives exchange that trades futures contracts and options on equities, currencies, interest rates, and more. Montreal is also a global hub for artificial intelligence research with many companies involved in this sector, such as Facebook AI Research (FAIR), Microsoft Research, Google Brain, DeepMind, Samsung Research and Thales Group (cortAIx). The city is also home to Mila (research institute), an artificial intelligence research institute with over 500 researchers specialising in the field of deep learning, the largest of its kind in the world.

The video game industry has been booming in Montreal since November 2, 1995, coinciding with the opening of Ubisoft Montreal. Recently, the city has attracted world leading game developers and publishers studios such as EA, Eidos Interactive, BioWare, Artificial Mind and Movement, Strategy First, THQ, Gameloft mainly because of the quality of local specialized labour, and tax credits offered to the corporations. Recently, Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, a division of Warner Bros., announced that it would open a video game studio. Relatively new to the video game industry, it will be Warner Bros. first studio opened, not purchased, and will develop games for such Warner Bros. franchises as Batman and other games from their DC Comics portfolio. The studio will create 300 jobs.

Montreal plays an important role in the finance industry. The sector employs approximately 100,000 people in the Greater Montreal Area. The city is home to the Montreal Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in Canada and the only financial derivatives exchange in the country. The corporate headquarters of the Bank of Montreal and Royal Bank of Canada, two of the biggest banks in Canada, were in Montreal. While both banks moved their headquarters to Toronto, Ontario, their legal corporate offices remain in Montreal. The city is home to head offices of two smaller banks, National Bank of Canada and Laurentian Bank of Canada. The Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, an institutional investor managing assets totalling $248 billion CAD, has its main business office in Montreal. Many foreign subsidiaries operating in the financial sector also have offices in Montreal, including HSBC, Aon, Société Générale, BNP Paribas and AXA.

Several companies are headquartered in Greater Montreal Area including Rio Tinto Alcan, Bombardier Inc., Canadian National Railway, CGI Group, Air Canada, Air Transat, CAE, Saputo, Cirque du Soleil, Stingray Group, Quebecor, Ultramar, Kruger Inc., Jean Coutu Group, Uniprix, Proxim, Domtar, Le Château, Power Corporation, Cellcom Communications, Bell Canada. Standard Life, Hydro-Québec, AbitibiBowater, Pratt and Whitney Canada, Molson, Tembec, Canada Steamship Lines, Fednav, Alimentation Couche-Tard, SNC-Lavalin, MEGA Brands, Aeroplan, Agropur, Metro Inc., Laurentian Bank of Canada, National Bank of Canada, Transat A.T., Via Rail, GardaWorld, Novacam Technologies, SOLABS, Dollarama, Rona and the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec.


Higher education (English) • McGill University is one of Canada's leading post-secondary institutions and is widely regarded as a world-class institution. In 2021, McGill was ranked as the top medical-doctoral university in Canada for the seventeenth consecutive year by Maclean's and second in Canada and the 27th best university in the world by the QS World University Rankings. • Concordia University was created from the merger of Sir George Williams University and Loyola College in 1974. The university has been ranked as one of the top comprehensive universities in Canada by Macleans.


Higher education (French) • Université de Montréal (UdeM) is the second largest research university in Canada and ranked as one of the top universities in Canada. Two separate institutions are affiliated to the university: the École Polytechnique de Montréal (School of Engineering) and HEC Montréal (School of Business). HEC Montreal was founded in 1907 and is considered one of the best business schools in Canada. • Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) is the Montreal campus of Université du Québec. UQAM generally specializes in liberal-arts, although many programs related to the sciences are available. ◦ The Université du Québec network also has three separately run schools in Montréal, notably the École de technologie supérieure (ETS), the École nationale d'administration publique (ÉNAP) and the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS). • L'Institut de formation théologique de Montréal des Prêtres de Saint-Sulpice (IFTM) specializes in theology and philosophy. • Institut d'hôtellerie et de tourisme du Québec (IHTQ) offers an Applied Bachelor in Hospitality and Hotel Management. • Conservatoire de musique du Québec à Montréal offers both a Bachelor and a Master program in classical music.

Additionally, two French-language universities, Université de Sherbrooke and Université Laval have campuses in the nearby suburb of Longueuil on Montreal's south shore. Also, l'Institut de pastorale des Dominicains is Montreal's university centre of Ottawa's Collège Universitaire Dominicain/Dominican University College. The Faculté de théologie évangélique is Nova Scotia's Acadia University Montreal based serving French Protestant community in Canada by offering both a Bachelor and a Master program in theology

Montreal, Quebec, Canada 
<b>Montreal, Quebec, Canada</b>
Image: Adobe Stock beatrice prève #248698231

Montreal is rated Alpha − by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) which evaluates and ranks the relationships between world cities in the context of globalisation. Alpha level cities are linked to major economic states and regions and into the world economy.

Montreal is the #27 city in the world according to the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) which evaluates and ranks the competitiveness of the major financial centres of the world according to a wide range of criteria – Human Capital, Business, Finance, Infrastructure and Reputation.

Montreal is ranked #101 and rated C+ by the Global Urban Competitiveness Report (GUCR) which evaluates and ranks world cities in the context of economic competitiveness. C+ cities are strong international gateway cities. Montreal was ranked #74 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Montreal has a population of over 1,704,694 people. Montreal also forms the centre of the wider Montreal metropolitan area which has a population of over 4,027,100 people. Montreal is the #360 hipster city in the world, with a hipster score of 2.0408 according to the Hipster Index which evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to the number of vegan eateries, coffee shops, tattoo studios, vintage boutiques, and record stores. Montreal is ranked #46 for startups with a score of 9.248.

To set up a UBI Lab for Montreal see: Twitter:

Montreal is a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network for Design see:

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Montreal is Sister cities with:

🇩🇿 Algiers, Algeria 🇲🇬 Antananarivo, Madagascar 🇮🇱 Beersheba, Israel 🇺🇸 Boston, USA 🇧🇪 Brussels, Belgium 🇷🇴 Bucharest, Romania 🇰🇷 Busan, South Korea 🇨🇳 Changning, China 🇩🇪 Düsseldorf, Germany 🇻🇳 Hanoi, Vietnam 🇯🇵 Hiroshima, Japan 🇺🇸 Holyoke, USA 🇫🇷 Lyon, France 🇵🇭 Manila, Philippines 🇨🇴 Manizales, Colombia 🇫🇷 Paris, France 🇭🇹 Port-au-Prince, Haiti 🇨🇳 Qingpu District, China 🇪🇨 Quito, Ecuador 🇸🇻 San Salvador, El Salvador 🇨🇳 Shanghai, China 🇮🇱 Tel Aviv, Israel 🇹🇳 Tunis, Tunisia 🇦🇲 Yerevan, Armenia
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | GFCI | GaWC | GUCR | Hipster Index | Nomad | StartupBlink

  • Louis de Soissons |

    🇨🇦 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 Architect Louis de Soissons is associated with Montreal. Louis Emmanuel Jean Guy de Savoie-Carignan de Soissons was also known as Baron Longroy Viscomte d'Ostel,

  • Wemyss Wylton Todd |

    Architect Wemyss Wylton Todd is associated with Montreal.

  • Victor Daniel Horsburgh |

    🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿 🇨🇦 Architect Victor Daniel Horsburgh is associated with Montreal. In 1910 he emigrated to Canada and settled in Toronto, Ontario.

  • James Robert Rhind |

    🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿 🇨🇦 Architect James Robert Rhind is associated with Montreal. He worked in the Office of Public Works Architectural Department, Glasgow until 1880.

  • Alexander Scott Carter |

    🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 🇨🇦 Architect/Painter/Heraldic Artist Alexander Scott Carter is associated with Montreal. In 1911 he was elected a Licentiate of the Royal Institute of British Architects (LRIBA).

  • Alfred Dennis Thacker |

    🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 🇨🇦 Architect Alfred Dennis Thacker is associated with Montreal. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects (ARIBA) in 1907.

  • Wilfred Craven Rhodes |

    🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 🇨🇦 Architect Wilfred Craven Rhodes is associated with Montreal.

  • Thomas Adams |

    🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿 Architect/Town Planner Thomas Adams is associated with Montreal. In 1930 he was appointed part-time director of research in planning by Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Antipodal to Montreal is: 106.45,-45.5

Locations Near: Montreal -73.55,45.5

🇨🇦 Verdun -73.549,45.458 d: 4.7  

🇨🇦 Longueuil -73.494,45.542 d: 6.4  

🇨🇦 Mount Royal -73.633,45.5 d: 6.5  

🇨🇦 Brossard -73.45,45.467 d: 8.6  

🇨🇦 Saint-Constant -73.571,45.371 d: 14.4  

🇨🇦 LaSalle -73.663,45.429 d: 11.9  

🇨🇦 Lachine -73.667,45.417 d: 13  

🇨🇦 Saint-Laurent -73.707,45.502 d: 12.2  

🇨🇦 Laval -73.745,45.552 d: 16.2  

🇨🇦 Terrebonne -73.633,45.692 d: 22.3  

Antipodal to: Montreal 106.45,-45.5

🇦🇺 Bunbury 115.637,-33.327 d: 18450.7  

🇦🇺 Albany 117.867,-35.017 d: 18502.5  

🇦🇺 Mandurah 115.721,-32.529 d: 18367.9  

🇦🇺 Rockingham 115.717,-32.267 d: 18341.9  

🇦🇺 City of Cockburn 115.833,-32.167 d: 18327.1  

🇦🇺 Cannington 115.934,-32.017 d: 18308  

🇦🇺 Perth 115.857,-31.953 d: 18304.7  

🇦🇺 Vincent 115.834,-31.936 d: 18304  

🇦🇺 Guildford 115.973,-31.9 d: 18294.7  

🇦🇺 Wanneroo 115.803,-31.747 d: 18286.2  

Bing Map

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