Middlesbrough is a large town in North Yorkshire, England. It is on the River Tees's southern bank, west of Redcar and east of Stockton-on-Tees. The Borough of Middlesbrough is governed from the town. By 1830 Middlesbrough had begun to develop as a new town and port, driven by the coal industry and later ironworks. Steel production and ship building began in the late 1800s, and remained associated with the town until post-industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century. Trade, notably through ports, and digital enterprise sectors contemporarily contribute to the local economy. Teesside University is also based in the town.
The main economy was once dominated by steel-making, shipbuilding and chemical industries, has changed during the last fifty years as newer technologies have begun to emerge e.g. in the digital sector. The area is still home to the nearby large Wilton International industrial site where smaller manufacturing units are owned by multinational organisations. Some of the companies are now members of the Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster (NEPIC). Middlesbrough also remains a stronghold for engineering based manufacturing and engineering contract service businesses. To help support this, the new TeesAMP advanced manufacturing park is designed to accommodate businesses associated with advanced manufacturing and emerging technologies. TeesAMP will be the location of the UK's first hydrogen transport centre.
Teesport, owned by PD Ports, is a major contributor to the economy of Middlesbrough and the port owners have their offices in the town. The port is 1 mile (2 km) from the North Sea and 4 miles (6 km) east of Middlesbrough, on the River Tees. It currently handles over 4,350 vessels each year and around 27 million tonnes of cargo with the estate covering approximately 779 acres. Steel, petrochemical, agribulks, manufacturing, engineering and high street commerce operations are all supported through Teesport, in addition to the renewable energy sector – in both production and assembly facilities.
Teesside University is a major presence in the town. The university has a growing reputation for developing digital businesses particularly in the field of digital animation and for hosting the Animex festival. The Boho zone in the town now houses a large number of these start-up digital businesses. The university has 18,000 students, 2,400 staff and operates a campus in Middlesbrough town-centre.
Teesside University supports a total of 2,570 full-time jobs across the Tees Valley, North East and UK economies per annum. The university contributes additional wealth to the local, regional and national economies as measured by Gross Value Added (GVA). It is estimated this contributes a total of £124 million GVA per annum. The total direct, indirect and induced spending impacts associated with full-time international students and UK students from outside of the North East is approximately £18.9 million per annum. It is estimated this spending supports 158 full-time jobs per annum in Tees Valley and contributes additional wealth of £9.3 million per annum to the local economy.
The South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust runs the James Cook University Hospital in the town. It adds to the economy through innovative projects; such as South Tees bio-incubator which acts as a launch-pad for research, innovation and collaboration between health, technology and science. It is a facility used by GlycoSeLect (UK) Ltd. as a client of the trust in strategic partnership with The Northern Health Science Alliance which has contributed £10.8 billion to the UK economy.
Roseberry Park Hospital, operated by Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys Foundation NHS Trust (TWEV), is north of James Cook Hospital. The hospital is psychiatric orientated. Acklam Road Hospital is operated by Cumbria, Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust. Also in the town is the Middlesbrough One Life Medical Centre and North Ormesby Health Village. Ramsey Health operate the private Tees Valley Hospital in Acklam.
Middlesbrough has four shopping centres accessible from Linthorpe road: Cleveland Centre, Hill Street, Captain Cook Square and Dundas. Middlesbrough Leisure park and Gateway Retail Park are on the east side of the centre. Cleveland retail park (South Bank), Parkway Centre (Coulby Newham) and Teesside Park (between Thornaby and Middlesbrough) are on the Town's outskirts.
Middlesbrough has a population of over 140,980 people. Middlesbrough also forms part of the wider Middlesbrough metropolitan area which has a population of over 656,000 people. Middlesbrough is the #209 hipster city in the world, with a hipster score of 3.4204 according to the Hipster Index which evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to the number of vegan eateries, coffee shops, tattoo studios, vintage boutiques, and record stores per 100,000 city residents.