🇮🇳 Mangalore, officially known as Mangaluru, is a major port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats about 352 km west of Bangalore, the state capital, 20 km north of Karnataka–Kerala border, 297 km south of Goa. Mangalore is the state's only city to have all four modes of transport—air, road, rail and sea. It is known for being one of the locations of the Indian strategic petroleum reserves.
The city developed as a port in the Arabian Sea during ancient times; it has since developed into a major port of India that handles 75 per cent of India's coffee and cashew exports, and is the country's seventh largest container port.
Mangalore is also the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, and is a commercial, industrial, educational, healthcare and startup hub. This city's International Airport is the second-largest and second-busiest airport in Karnataka. Mangalore City Corporation is responsible for the civic administration, which manages the 60 wards of the city. The city's landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, rivers and hard laterite soil. India's first 3D planetarium with 8K resolution display is situated in this city. Mangalore is also included in the Smart Cities Mission list and is among the 100 smart cities to be developed in India. The city has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level. Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate and is under the influence of the south-west monsoon. In 2017, Mangalore was ranked the 48th best city to live in the world by a US survey, and the only Indian city in the top 50.
Economy Industrial, commercial, agricultural processing and port-related activities comprise this city's economy. The New Mangalore Port is India's seventh-largest container port. It handles 75 per cent of India's coffee exports and the bulk of its cashew nuts. The Mangalore Customs Commissionerate collected a revenue of ₹4.47 billion (US$62.67 million) during 2012–13 and ₹27.91 billion (US$391.30 million) during December 2018. During 2012–13, MRPL and MCF contributed ₹501 million (US$7.02 million) and ₹373 million (US$5.23 million) respectively, to the state's revenue. Dakshina Kannada district has the highest percentage of workers employed in industry and the second-highest industry-to-district GDP ratio in Karnataka. Imports through New Mangalore port include crude oil, edible oil, liquefied petroleum gas and timber.
The city's major chemical industries include BASF, Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL), Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers (MCF), Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. (KIOCL), Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (HPCL), Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL), Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL), Total Oil India Limited and Hindustan Unilever. The Indian government has built 5.33 million tons of strategic crude oil storage at Mangalore and Padur to ensure energy security. Out of the 5 million metric tonnes (MMT) storage, 1.5 MMT is stored at Mangalore. Bharati Shipyard Ltd (BSL) (now known as Bharati Defence and Infrastructure Limited) has established a shipbuilding site near Tannirbavi in Mangalore.
Major information technology (IT) and outsourcing companies like Infosys, Cognizant and Thomson Reuters have their offices at Mangalore. Mphasis' Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) has a branch in this city. IT parks Export Promotion Investment Park (EPIP) at Ganjimutt and Special Economic Zone (SEZ) near Mangalore University have been constructed. An IT park called Soorya Infratech park is situated in Mudipu. Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) has planned to invest ₹500 crore (US$70.10 million) and setup its office at Karnad near Mangalore. KEONICS has planned to setup an IT park at Derebail in Mangalore, similar to Electronic City, spanning an area of 100 acres.
Centre for Entrepreneurship Opportunities and Learning (CEOL) is a startup incubation centre situated in the city. Corporation Bank, Canara Bank and Vijaya Bank were the three nationalised banks established in Mangalore during the first half of the 20th century. Mangalore is the headquarters of Corporation Bank and Karnataka Bank. The Mangalore Catholic Co-operative Bank (MCC Bank) Ltd, Mangalore Cooperative Town Bank Ltd and SCDCC Bank were the scheduled banks established in Mangalore.
Syngene International, a contract research arm of Biocon, has set up its manufacturing plant at Mangalore. Old Mangalore Port is a fishing port located at Bunder, Mangalore, where a large number of mechanised boats anchor. The traffic at this port was 122,000 tonnes during the years 2003–04. New Mangalore Port handled over 100,000 Twenty-foot equivalent units of containers during the years 2017–18. Fishing is a traditional occupation and the products are sold in the surrounding regions. Mangalorean firms have a major presence in the tile, beedi, coffee and cashew nut industries although the tile industry has declined because concrete is preferred in modern construction. The Albuquerque tile factory in Mangalore is one of India's oldest red-roof-tile manufacturing factories. The city's suburb Ullal produces hosiery and coir yarns while beedi rolling is an important source of revenue to many of the city's residents.