Kathmandu, Bagmati Province, Nepal

Etymology | History | Ancient history | Medieval era | Geography | Kathmandu administration | Economy | Tourist Industry | Transport : Road : Air | Ropeways | Media | Sport | International relations

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Kathmandu is the capital and largest city of Nepal. Also known as the city of temples, the city stands at an elevation of approximately 1,400 metres above sea level in the bowl-shaped Kathmandu Valley in central Nepal. The valley was historically called the "Nepal Mandala" and has been the home of the Newar people, a cosmopolitan urban civilisation in the Himalayan foothills. The city was the royal capital of the Kingdom of Nepal and hosts palaces, mansions and gardens of the Nepalese aristocracy. It has been home to the headquarters of the South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation since 1985. Today, it is the seat of government of the Nepalese republic, established in 2008, and is part of the Bagmati Province.

Kathmandu is and has been for many years the centre of Nepal's history, art, culture, and economy. It has a multiethnic population within a Hindu and Buddhist majority. Religious and cultural festivities form a major part of the lives of people residing in Kathmandu. Tourism is an important part of the economy in the city. In 2013, Kathmandu was ranked third among the top ten upcoming travel destinations in the world by TripAdvisor, and ranked first in Asia. The city is considered the gateway to the Nepalese Himalayas and is home to several World Heritage Sites: the Durbar Square, Swayambhunath, Boudhanath and Pashupatinath. Kathmandu valley is growing at 4 percent per year according to the World Bank in 2010, making it one of the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in South Asia, and the first region in Nepal to face the unprecedented challenges of rapid urbanisation and modernisation at a metropolitan scale. It is the largest metropolitan area located in the Himalayas.

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Etymology The indigenous Nepal Bhasa term for Kathmandu is Yen. The Nepali name Kathmandu comes from Kasthamandap, which stood in Kathmandu Durbar Square, was completely destroyed by the April 2015 Nepal Earthquake, but has since been reconstructed. In Sanskrit, Kฤแนฃแนญha (เค•เคพเคทเฅเค ) means "wood" and Maแน‡แธapa (เคฎเคฃเฅเคกเคช) means "pavilion". This public pavilion, also known as Maru Satta in Newari, was rebuilt in 1596 by Biseth in the period of King Laxmi Narsingh Malla. The three-storey structure was made entirely of wood and used no iron nails nor supports. According to legends, all the timber used to build the pagoda was obtained from a single tree.

The colophons of ancient manuscripts, dated as late as the 20th century, refer to Kathmandu as Kฤแนฃแนญhamaแน‡แธap Mahฤnagar in Nepal Mandala. Mahฤnagar means "great city". The city is called Kฤแนฃแนญhamaแน‡แธap in a vow that Buddhist priests still recite to this day. Thus, Kathmandu is also known as Kฤแนฃแนญhamaแน‡แธap. During medieval times, the city was sometimes called Kฤntipur (Sanskrit: เค•เคพเคจเฅเคคเคฟเคชเฅเคฐ). This name is derived from two Sanskrit words โ€“ Kฤnti and Pur. Kฤnti is a word that stands for "beauty" and is mostly associated with light and Pur means place, thus giving it the meaning, "City of light".

Among the indigenous Newar people, Kathmandu is known as Yeแนƒ Dey (Newar: เคฏเฅ‡เค เคฆเฅ‡เคฏเฅ), and Patan and Bhaktapur are known as Yala Dey (Newar: เคฏเคฒ เคฆเฅ‡เคฏเฅ) and Khwopa Dey (Newar: เค–เฅเคตเคช เคฆเฅ‡เคฏเฅ) respectively. "Yen" is the shorter form of Yambu (Newar: เคฏเคฎเฅเคฌเฅ), which originally referred to the northern half of Kathmandu. The older northern settlements were referred to as Yambi while the southern settlement was known as Yangala.

The spelling "Katmandu" was often used in older English-language text. More recently, however, the spelling "Kathmandu" has become more common in English.

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History Archaeological excavations in parts of Kathmandu have found evidence of ancient civilizations. The oldest of these findings is a statue, found in Maligaon, that was dated at 185 AD. The excavation of Dhando Chaitya uncovered a brick with an inscription in Brahmi script. Archaeologists believe that it is two thousand years old. Stone inscriptions are ubiquitous elements at the heritage sites and are key sources for the history of Nepal.

The earliest Western reference to Kathmandu appears in an account of Portuguese Jesuit Father Joao Cabral who passed through the Kathmandu Valley in the spring of 1628 and was received graciously by the king of that time, probably King Lakshminarasimha Malla of Kathmandu on their way from Tibet to India. Father Cabral reported that they reached "Cadmendu", the capital of Nepal kingdom.

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Ancient history The ancient history of Kathmandu is described in its traditional myths and legends. According to the Swayambhu Purana, present-day Kathmandu was once a huge and deep lake named "Nagdaha", as it was full of snakes. The lake was cut drained by Bodhisattva Manjushri with his sword, and the water was evacuated out from there. He then established a city called Manjupattan, and made Dharmakar the ruler of the valley land. After some time, a demon named Banasura closed the outlet, and the valley again turned into a lake. Krishna came to Nepal, killed Banasura, and again drained out the water by cutting the edge of Chobhar hill with this Sudarshana Chakra. He brought some cowherds along with him and made Bhuktaman the king of Nepal.

Kotirudra Samhita of Shiva Purana, Chapter 11, Shloka 18 refers to the place as Nayapala city, which was famous for its Pashupati Shivalinga. The name Nepal probably originates from this city Nayapala.

Very few historical records exists of the period before medieval Licchavi rulers. According to Gopalraj Vansawali, a genealogy of Nepali monarchy, the rulers of Kathmandu Valley before the Licchavis were Gopalas, Mahispalas, Aabhirs, Kiratas, and Somavanshi. The Kirata dynasty was established by Yalamber. During the Kirata era, a settlement called Yambu existed in the northern half of old Kathmandu. In some of the Sino-Tibetan languages, Kathmandu is still called Yambu. Another smaller settlement called Yengal was present in the southern half of old Kathmandu, near Manjupattan. During the reign of the seventh Kirata ruler, Jitedasti, Buddhist monks entered Kathmandu valley and established a forest monastery at Sankhu.

Licchavi era The Licchavis from the Indo-Gangetic plain migrated north and defeated the Kirats, establishing the Licchavi dynasty, circa 400 AD. During this era, following the genocide of Shakyas in Lumbini by Virudhaka, the survivors migrated north and entered the forest monastery lora masquerading as Koliyas. From Sankhu, they migrated to Yambu and Yengal (Lanjagwal and Manjupattan) and established the first permanent Buddhist monasteries of Kathmandu. This created the basis of Newar Buddhism, which is the only surviving Sanskrit-based Buddhist tradition in the world. With their migration, Yambu was called Koligram and Yengal was called Dakshin Koligram during most of the Licchavi era.

Eventually, the Licchavi ruler Gunakamadeva merged Koligram and Dakshin Koligram, founding the city of Kathmandu. The city was designed in the shape of Chandrahrasa, the sword of Manjushri. The city was surrounded by eight barracks guarded by Ajimas. One of these barracks is still in use at Bhadrakali (in front of Singha Durbar). The city served as an important transit point in the trade between India and Tibet, leading to tremendous growth in architecture. Descriptions of buildings such as Managriha, Kailaskut Bhawan, and Bhadradiwas Bhawan have been found in the surviving journals of travellers and monks who lived during this era. For example, the famous 7th-century Chinese traveller Xuanzang described Kailaskut Bhawan, the palace of the Licchavi king Amshuverma. The trade route also led to cultural exchange as well. The artistry of the Newar peopleโ€”the indigenous inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valleyโ€”became highly sought after during this era, both within the Valley and throughout the greater Himalayas. Newar artists travelled extensively throughout Asia, creating religious art for their neighbours. For example, Araniko led a group of his compatriot artists through Tibet and China. Bhrikuti, the princess of Nepal who married Tibetan monarch Songtsรคn Gampo, was instrumental in introducing Buddhism to Tibet.

Malla era The Licchavi era was followed by the Malla era. Rulers from Tirhut, upon being attacked by the Delhi Sultanate, fled north to the Kathmandu valley. They intermarried with Nepali royalty, and this led to the Malla era. The early years of the Malla era were turbulent, with raids and attacks from Khas and Turk Muslims. There was also a devastating earthquake which claimed the lives of a third of Kathmandu's population, including the king Abhaya Malla. These disasters led to the destruction of most of the architecture of the Licchavi era (such as Mangriha and Kailashkut Bhawan), and the loss of literature collected in various monasteries within the city. Despite the initial hardships, Kathmandu rose to prominence again and, during most of the Malla era, dominated the trade between India and Tibet. Nepali currency became the standard currency in trans-Himalayan trade.

During the later part of the Malla era, Kathmandu Valley comprised four fortified cities: Kantipur, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, and Kirtipur. These served as the capitals of the Malla confederation of Nepal. These states competed with each other in the arts, architecture, esthetics, and trade, resulting in tremendous development. The kings of this period directly influenced or involved themselves in the construction of public buildings, squares, and temples, as well as the development of waterspouts, the institutionalisation of trusts (called guthis), the codification of laws, the writing of dramas, and the performance of plays in city squares. Evidence of an influx of ideas from India, Tibet, China, Persia, and Europe among other places can be found in a stone inscription from the time of king Pratap Malla. Books have been found from this era that describe their tantric tradition (e.g. Tantrakhyan), medicine (e.g.ย Haramekhala), religion (e.g.ย Mooldevshashidev), law, morals, and history. Amarkosh, a Sanskrit-Nepal Bhasa dictionary from 1381, was also found. Architecturally notable buildings from this era include Kathmandu Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, Bhaktapur Durbar Square, the former durbar of Kirtipur, Nyatapola, Kumbheshwar, the Krishna temple, and others.

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Medieval era Early Shah rule The Gorkha Kingdom ended the Malla confederation after the Battle of Kathmandu in 1768. This marked the beginning of the modern era in Kathmandu. The Battle of Kirtipur was the start of the Gorkha conquest of the Kathmandu Valley. Kathmandu was adopted as the capital of the Gorkha empire, and the empire itself was dubbed Nepal. During the early part of this era, Kathmandu maintained its distinctive culture. Buildings with characteristic Nepali architecture, such as the nine-story tower of Basantapur, were built during this era. However, trade declined because of continual war with neighbouring nations. Bhimsen Thapa supported France against Great Britain; this led to the development of modern military structures, such as modern barracks in Kathmandu. The nine-storey tower Dharahara was originally built during this era.

Rana rule Rana rule over Nepal started with the Kot massacre of 1846, which occurred near Hanuman Dhoka Durbar. During this massacre, most of Nepal's high-ranking officials were massacred by Jung Bahadur Rana and his supporters. Another massacre, the Bhandarkhal Massacre, was also conducted by Kunwar and his supporters in Kathmandu. During the Rana regime, Kathmandu's alliance shifted from anti-British to pro-British; this led to the construction of the first buildings in the style of Western European architecture. The most well-known of these buildings include Singha Durbar, Garden of Dreams, Shital Niwas, and the old Narayanhiti palace. The first modern commercial road in the Kathmandu Valley, the New Road, was also built during this era. Trichandra College (the first college of Nepal), Durbar High School (the first modern school of Nepal), and Bir Hospital (the first hospital of Nepal) were built in Kathmandu during this era. Education was only accessible to the privileged class. Rana rule was marked by despotism, economic exploitation and religious persecution.

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Geography Kathmandu is in the north-western part of the Kathmandu Valley to the north of the Bagmati River and covers an area of 50.7ย kmยฒ (19.6ย sqย mi). The average elevation is 1,400 metres (4,600ย ft) above sea level. The city is bounded by several other municipalities of the Kathmandu valley: south of the Bagmati by Lalitpur Metropolitan City (Patan), with which it forms one urban area surrounded by a ring road, to the south-west by Kirtipur and to the east by Madyapur Thimi. To the north the urban area extends into several municipalities; Nagarjun, Tarakeshwor, Tokha, Budhanilkantha, Gokarneshwor and Kageshwori Manohara. However, the urban agglomeration extends well beyond the neighbouring municipalities, e.g. to Bhaktapur, and nearly covers the entire Kathmandu Valley.

Kathmandu is dissected by eight rivers, the main river of the valley, the Bagmati and its tributaries, of which the Bishnumati, Dhobi Khola, Manohara Khola, Hanumante Khola, and Tukucha Khola are predominant. The mountains from where these rivers originate are in the elevation range of 1,500โ€“3,000 metres (4,900โ€“9,800ย ft), and have passes which provide access to and from Kathmandu and its valley. An ancient canal once flowed from Nagarjuna hill through Balaju to Kathmandu; this canal is now extinct.

The city of Kathmandu and the surrounding valley are in the Deciduous Monsoon Forest Zone (altitude range of 1,200โ€“2,100 metres (3,900โ€“6,900ย ft)), one of five vegetation zones defined for Nepal. The dominant tree species in this zone are oak, elm, beech, maple and others, with coniferous trees at higher altitude.

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Kathmandu administration Kathmandu and adjacent cities are composed of neighbourhoods, which are utilized quite extensively and more familiar among locals. However, administratively the city is divided into 32 wards, numbered from 1 to 32. Earlier, there were 35 wards which made it the metropolitan city with the largest number of the wards.

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Economy The location and terrain of Kathmandu have played a significant role in the development of a stable economy which spans millennia. The city is in an ancient lake basin, with fertile soil and flat terrain. This geography helped form a society based on agriculture. This, combined with its location between India and China, helped establish Kathmandu as an important trading centre over the centuries. Kathmandu's trade is an ancient profession that flourished along an offshoot of the Silk Road which linked India and Tibet. From centuries past, Lhasa Newar merchants of Kathmandu have conducted trade across the Himalaya and contributed to spreading art styles and Buddhism across Central Asia. Other traditional occupations are farming, metal casting, woodcarving, painting, weaving, and pottery.

Kathmandu is the most important industrial and commercial centre in Nepal. The Nepal Stock Exchange, the head office of the national bank, the chamber of commerce, as well as head offices of national and international banks, telecommunication companies, the electricity authority, and various other national and international organizations are in Kathmandu. The major economic hubs are the New Road, Durbar Marg, Ason and Putalisadak.

The economic output of the metropolitan area of around Rs. 550ย billion approximately per year alone is worth more than one third of national GDP (nominal), while the per capita income of $2200 is approximately three times the national average. Kathmandu exports handicrafts, artworks, garments, carpets, pashmina, paper; trade accounts for 21% of its revenues. Manufacturing is also important and accounts for 19% of the revenue that Kathmandu generates. Garments and woolen carpets are the most notable manufactured products. Other economic sectors in Kathmandu include agriculture (9%), education (6%), transport (6%), and hotels and restaurants (5%). Kathmandu is famous for lokta paper and pashmina shawls.

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Tourist Industry Tourism is considered another important industry in Nepal. This industry started around 1950, as the country's political makeup changed and ended the country's isolation from the rest of the world. In 1956, air transportation was established and the Tribhuvan Highway, between Kathmandu and Raxaul (at India's border), was started. Separate organizations were created in Kathmandu to promote this activity; some of these include the Tourism Development Board, the Department of Tourism and the Civil Aviation Department. Furthermore, Nepal became a member of several international tourist associations. Establishing diplomatic relations with other nations further accentuated this activity. The hotel industry, travel agencies, training of tourist guides, and targeted publicity campaigns are the chief reasons for the remarkable growth of this industry in Nepal, and in Kathmandu in particular. Since then, tourism in Nepal has thrived. It is the country's most important industry. Tourism is a major source of income for most of the people in the city, with several hundred thousand visitors annually. Hindu and Buddhist pilgrims from all over the world visit Kathmandu's religious sites such as Pashupatinath, Swayambhunath, Boudhanath, Changunarayan and Budhanilkantha. From a mere 6,179 tourists in 1961/62, the number increased to 491,504 in 1999/2000. In economic terms, the foreign exchange registered 3.8% of the GDP in 1995/96 but then started declining. Following the end of the Maoist insurgency, there was a significant rise in the number of tourist arrivals, with 509,956 tourists recorded in 2009. Since then, tourism has improved as the country transitioned into a republic. The high level of tourism is attributed to the natural grandeur of the Himalayas and the rich cultural heritage of the country.

The neighbourhood of Thamel is Kathmandu's primary "traveller's ghetto", packed with guest houses, restaurants, shops, and bookstores, catering to tourists. Another neighbourhood of growing popularity is Jhamel, a name for Jhamsikhel that was coined to rhyme with Thamel. Jhochhen Tol, also known as Freak Street, is Kathmandu's original traveller's haunt, made popular by the hippies of the 1960s and 1970s; it remains a popular alternative to Thamel. Ason is a bazaar and ceremonial square on the old trade route to Tibet, and provides a fine example of a traditional neighbourhood.

With the opening of the tourist industry after the change in the political scenario of Nepal in 1950, the hotel industry drastically improved. Now Kathmandu boasts several luxuries such as the Hyatt Regency, Dwarika's, Hotel Yak & Yeti, The Everest Hotel, Hotel Radisson, Hotel De L'Annapurna, The Malla Hotel, Shangri-La Hotel (not operated by the Shangri-La Hotel Group) and Hotel Shanker. There are several four-star hotels such as Akama Hotel, Hotel Vaishali, Hotel Narayani, The Blue Star and Grand Hotel. The Garden Hotel, Hotel Ambassador, and Aloha Inn are among the three-star hotels in Kathmandu. Hotels like Hyatt Regency, De L'Annapurna, and Yak & Yeti are among the five-star hotels with casinos as well.

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Transport: Road The total length of roads in Nepal is recorded to be 17,182ย km (10,676ย mi), as of 2003โ€“04. This fairly large network has helped the economic development of the country, particularly in the fields of agriculture, horticulture, vegetable farming, industry and also tourism. In view of the hilly terrain, transportation takes place in Kathmandu are mainly by road and air. Kathmandu is connected by the Tribhuvan Highway to the south connecting India, Prithvi Highway to the west and Araniko Highway to the north connecting China. The BP Highway connects Kathmandu to the eastern part of Nepal through Sindhuli. The fast-track is under construction which will be the shortest route to connect Terai with the valley.

Sajha Yatayat provides regular bus services throughout Kathmandu and the surrounding valley. Other bus companies including micro-bus companies operate several unscheduled routes. Trolleybusses used to operate on the route between Tripureshwor and Suryabinayak on a 13-kilometre route.

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Transport: Air The main international airport serving Kathmandu valley is the Tribhuvan International Airport, about 6 km (3.7ย mi) from the city centre and is operated by the Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal. It has two terminals, one domestic and one international. At present, it connects 30 cities around the globe in Europe, Asia and the Middle East such as Istanbul, Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Singapore, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Dhaka, Paro, Lhasa, Chengdu, Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Since 2013, Turkish Airlines has connected Istanbul to Kathmandu. Oman Air also connects Muscat to Kathmandu since 2010. Nepal Airlines started flying to Tokyo-Narita from 2 March 2020. Regionally, several Nepali airlines operate from the city, including Buddha Air, Nepal Airlines, Shree Airlines and Yeti Airlines to other major towns across Nepal.

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Ropeways Ropeways are another important transportation means in hilly terrain. A ropeway operated between Kathmandu and Hetauda over a length of 43ย km (27ย mi) which carried 25 tonnes of goods per hour. It has since been discontinued due to poor carrying capacity and maintenance issues. During the Rana period, a ropeway was constructed between Mathatirtha in Kathmandu to Dhorsing in Makawanpur of over 22ย km (14ย mi) in length, which carried a cargo of 8 tonnes per hour. At present, a cable car service is operated in Kathmandu in Chandragiri Hills.

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Media Kathmandu is the television hub of Nepal. Nepal Television, established in 1985, is the oldest and most-watched television channel in Nepal, as is government-owned NTV PLUS and also Kantipur Television, Image Channel, Sagarmatha Television, Himalaya TV, AP1 TV and other channels.

The headquarters of many of the country's news outlets are also in the city including Kathmandu Tribune, the government-owned Gorkhapatra (the oldest national daily newspaper in Nepal), The Kathmandu Post, Nepali Times, Kantipur Publications and its paper Kantipur, Naya Patrika, The Himalayan Times, Karobar Economic Daily, Aarthik Abhiyan National Daily and Jana Aastha National Weekly.

Nepal Republic Media, the publisher of myRepublica, joined a publishing alliance with the International Herald Tribune (IHT), to publish the Asia Pacific Edition of IHT from Kathmandu from 20 July 2011. There is a state-run National News Agency (RSS).

Radio Nepal is a state-run organization that operates national and regional radio stations. These stations are: Hits FM, Radio Kantipur, HBC 94 FM, Radio Sagarmatha and Image FM. The BBC also has an FM broadcasting station in Kathmandu. Few Community radio stations such as Radio Pratibodh โ€“ 102.4ย MHz, Radio Upatyaka โ€“ 87.6ย MHz etc. also broadcast within the valley.

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Sport Cricket and football are the most popular sports among the younger generation in Nepal and there are several stadiums in the city. The sport is governed by the National Sports Council from its headquarters in Kathmandu. The only international football stadium in the city is the Dasharath Rangasala, a multi-purpose stadium used mostly for football matches and cultural events, in the neighbourhood of Tripureshwor. It is the largest stadium in Nepal with a capacity of 25,000 spectators, built in 1956. Martyr's Memorial League is also held in this ground every year. The stadium was renovated with Chinese aid before the 8th South Asian Games were held in Kathmandu and floodlights were installed. Kathmandu is home to the oldest football clubs of Nepal such as Ranipokhari Corner Team (RCT), Sankata Club and New Road Team (NRT). Other prominent clubs include Manang Marsyangdi Club, Machhindra FC, Tribhuvan Army Club (TAC) and Nepal Police Club.

Kathmandu is also home of some of the oldest cricket clubs in Nepal, such as Yengal Sports Club. Kathmandu Kings XI represents Kathmandu in the Everest Premier League.

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International relations The Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), in order to promote international relations, has established an International Relations Secretariat (IRC). KMC's first international relationship was established in 1975 with the city of Eugene, Oregon, United States. This activity has been further enhanced by establishing formal relationships with 15 other cities: Matsumoto City (Nagano Prefecture, Japan), Rochester (New York State), Fredericksburg (United States), Boulder City (United States), Yangon (formerly Rangoon, Myanmar), Xi'an (Shaanxi, China), Shenzhen (China), Chengdu (China), Lhasa City (China), Nanjing (China), Lanzhou (China), Minsk (Belarus), Varanasi (India), Seoul (South Korea) and Pyongyang (North Korea). KMC's constant endeavour is to enhance its interaction with South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries, other international agencies and many other major cities of the world to achieve better urban management and developmental programs for Kathmandu. Kathmandu is home to several international and regional organizations, including the SAARC Secretariat and the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).

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Kathmandu, Nepal 
Kathmandu, Nepal
Image: Adobe Stock valdisskudre #293007537

Kathmandu was ranked #163 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Kathmandu has a population of over 1,472,000 people. Kathmandu also forms part of the wider Nepal State which has a population of over 28,095,714 people. Kathmandu is ranked #457 for startups with a score of 0.427.

To set up a UBI Lab for Kathmandu see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Kathmandu is a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network for Film see: https://en.unesco.org/creative-cities

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Kathmandu has links with:

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Amargadhi, Nepal ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ Bangkok, Thailand ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Boulder, USA ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Chandannath, Nepal ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Chengdu, China ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Coslada, Spain ๐Ÿด๓ ง๓ ข๓ ณ๓ ฃ๓ ด๓ ฟ Edinburgh, Scotland ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Eugene, USA ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Fredericksburg, USA ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Gap, France ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Lhasa, China ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Madrid, Spain ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต Matsumoto, Japan ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Melamchi, Nepal ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Pakhribas, Nepal ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ต Pyongyang, North Korea ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Ramgram, Nepal ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Rochester, USA ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Rochester, USA ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ Varanasi, India ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Xi'an, China ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Yangon, Myanmar

Kathmandu is a member of the OWHC: Organization of World Heritage Cities with: ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Acre ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ช Agadez ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ Ahmedabad ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Aktau ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Alcalรก de Henares ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡พ Aleppo ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Algiers ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ Amber ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ Amer ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Amsterdam ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Amsterdam ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Amsterdam ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Andong ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Angra do Heroรญsmo ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Anuradhapura ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Aranjuez ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Arequipa ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Augsburg ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Avila ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Baeza ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ท Bam ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Bamberg ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Banskรก ล tiavnica ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Bardejov ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Bath ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Bath ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Beemster ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Belo Horizonte ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Bergama ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Bergen ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Bergen ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Berlin ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Berlin ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Berlin ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Berlin ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ญ Bern ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Bernau bei Berlin ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Bhaktapur ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ด Biertan ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Boeun ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Bolgar ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Bordeaux ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Brasรญlia ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ง Bridgetown ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ช Bruges ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ช Brussels ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡บ Budapest ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Bursa ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Buyeo ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cรกceres ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ Cairo ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ Camaguey ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Campeche ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Carcassonne ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด Cartagena ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cartagena ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ ฤŒeskรฝ Krumlov ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Chengde ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ป Cidade Velha ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Coimbra ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ Colonia del Sacramento ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Cรณrdoba ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ท Cรณrdoba ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cรณrdoba ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Coro ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cuenca ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Cuenca ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Cuernavaca ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Cusco ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ณ Dakar ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡พ Damascus ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Denpasar ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Derbent ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Dessau ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Diamantina ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Diyarbakฤฑr ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท Dubrovnik ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Dujiangyan ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Edinburgh ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Ejmiatsin ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Elvas ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ถ Erbil ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Essaouira ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น ร‰vora ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Fez ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Fontainebleau ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ Fray Bentos ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Galle ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡พ George Town ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ George Town ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡พ Ghadames ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Ghardaรฏa ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Gianyar ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Gochang County ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Gongju ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Goris City ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Granada ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Granada ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Grand-Bassam ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น Graz ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Guadalajara ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Guadalajara ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Guanajuato ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Guimarรฃes ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Gwangju ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Gyeongju ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Haenam ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Hamburg ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Hapcheon County ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡น Harar Jugol ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ Havana ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณ Hoi An ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณ Huแบฟ ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Hwasun County ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Ibiza ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Icherisheher ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Iksan ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Istanbul ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Jeddah ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Jerusalem ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Jerusalem ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Jongno-Gu ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Kairouan ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Kandy ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Karangasem ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Karlskrona ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Kazan ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Khiva ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Kolding ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Konya ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ช Kotor ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Krakรณw ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Kutnรก Hora ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต Kyลto ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Lalitpur ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ช Lamu ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Le Havre ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฏ Levuka ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Lijiang ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Lima ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Luang Prabang ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Lรผbeck ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Lunenburg ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡บ Luxembourg City ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Lviv ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Lyon ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ด Macau ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พ Malacca City ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Marrakesh ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Meknes ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Mรฉrida ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Mรฉrida ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Mรฉrida ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Mexico City ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ Miagao ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Modena ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ช Mombasa ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Mont-Saint-Michel ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Morelia ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Moscow ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Moscow ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฆ Mostar ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Mozambique ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ญ Muharraq ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Nancy ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต Nara ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Naumburg ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฌ Nessebar ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Notodden ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Oaxaca ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Ohrid ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Olinda ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Ouro Preto ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Oviedo ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Oviedo ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Padula ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Palazzolo Acreide ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฆ Panama City ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Paris ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Paris ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Paris ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท Patmos ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Philadelphia ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Porto ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ด Potosรญ ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Potsdam ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Potsdam ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Prague ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Provins ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Puebla ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Pyay ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Quรฉbec ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Quedlinburg ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Querรฉtaro ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Quito ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Rabat ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Rauma ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Regensburg ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท Rhodes ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ป Riga ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Rรญmac ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Rio de Janeiro ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Rotterdam ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Rรธros ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Safranbolu ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Saint Petersburg ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Saint-Louis ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Salamanca ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Salvador ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น Salzburg ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ San Antonio ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ San Antonio ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡จ San Cristรณbal de La Laguna ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น San Gimignano ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ San Miguel de Allende ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ San Pablo Villa de Mitla ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ช Sanaa ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด Santa Cruz de Mompox ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Santiago de Compostela ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Sรฃo Luรญs ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Segovia ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท Selรงuk ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Seongbuk ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ช Shibam ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ด Sighiศ™oara ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Singapore ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Sintra ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Sousse ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท Split ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฒ St George's ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Stockholm ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Stralsund ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Strasbourg ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ด Sucre ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Surakarta ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Suwon ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Suzdal ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Suzhou ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ช Tallinn ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Tarragona ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Tel Aviv ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Telฤ ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Telford ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Tรฉtouan ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Timbuktu ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Tinn ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Tlacotalpan ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Toledo ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Toledo ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ Toledo ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Toledo ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Toruล„ ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Tล™ebรญฤ ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บ Trinidad ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท Trogir ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ณ Trujillo ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Trujillo ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Tunis ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Turkistan ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ รšbeda ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡น Valletta ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Valparaรญso ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฆ Vatican City ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Veliky Novgorod ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Vienna ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Vienna ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น Vienna ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญ Vigan ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡น Vilnius ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Vinje ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Visby ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Warsaw ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ Warsaw ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ผ Willemstad ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Wismar ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Xochimilco ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Yangsan ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ Yaroslavl ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ท Yazd ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Yeongju ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Yerevan ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ช Zabid ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝ Zacatecas ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Zamoล›ฤ‡ ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฟ Zanzibar City

Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | Nomad | StartupBlink

Antipodal to Kathmandu is: -94.686,-27.708

Locations Near: Kathmandu 85.3143,27.7078

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Lalitpur 85.35,27.703 d: 3.5  

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Patan 85.317,27.667 d: 4.6  

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Kirtipur 85.267,27.667 d: 6.5  

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Bhaktapur 85.417,27.667 d: 11.1  

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Melamchi 85.577,27.83 d: 29.2  

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Chautara 85.7,27.767 d: 38.5  

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Hetauda 85.033,27.417 d: 42.6  

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Gorkha 84.633,28 d: 74.4  

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Gorkha Municipality 84.628,27.996 d: 74.7  

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต Kalaiya 85,27.033 d: 81.2  

Antipodal to: Kathmandu -94.686,-27.708

๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Pisco -76.2,-13.717 d: 17548  

๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Ica -75.733,-14.067 d: 17535.9  

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Talcahuano -73.117,-36.717 d: 17759.3  

๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Chincha Alta -76.133,-13.45 d: 17522.7  

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Coronel -73.217,-37.017 d: 17755.9  

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ San Pedro de la Paz -73.1,-36.833 d: 17753.4  

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Coquimbo -71.333,-29.95 d: 17730.6  

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Concepciรณn -73.05,-36.817 d: 17749.9  

๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Callao -77.15,-12.067 d: 17494.2  

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ La Serena -71.25,-29.909 d: 17722.6  

Bing Map

Option 1