Kabul, Kabol Province, Afghanistan

History | Economy | Development planning | Communications | Hotels and other lodging | Culture and landmarks | Parks | Mosques | Mausoleums | Palaces | Culture : Museums | Other landmarks | Architecture | Transport : Air : Road : Public | Internet-based participatory planning | Education : University | Health care

🇦🇫 Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. Located in the eastern half of the country, it is also a municipality, forming part of the Kabul Province. The city is divided for administration into 22 municipal districts. In contemporary times, Kabul has served as Afghanistan's political, cultural and economical center. Rapid urbanisation has made it the country's primate city and the 75th-largest city in the world.

The modern-day city of Kabul is located high in a narrow valley in the Hindu Kush mountain range, and is bounded by the Kabul River. At an elevation of 1,790 metres (5,873 ft), it is one of the highest capital cities in the world. The centre of the city contains its old neighborhoods, including the areas of Khashti Bridge, Khabgah, Kahforoshi, Deh-Afghanan, Chandavel, Shorbazar, Saraji, Zana-Khan and Baghe Alimardan.

Kabul is said to be over 3,500 years old, and was mentioned at the time of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Located at a crossroads in Asia—roughly halfway between Istanbul, Turkey, in the west and Hanoi, Vietnam, in the east—the city is situated in a strategic location along the trade routes of Central Asia and South Asia. It was a key destination on the ancient Silk Road and was traditionally seen as the meeting point between Tartary, India and Persia. Over the centuries Kabul has been under the rule of other dynasties and empires, including the Seleucids, the Mauryans, the Kushans, the Hindu Shahis, Western Turks, the Turk Shahis, the Samanids, the Khwarazmians, the Timurids, the Mongols and the Arman Rayamajhis.

In the 16th century, the Mughal Empire used Kabul as a summer capital, during which time it prospered and increased in significance. It briefly came under the control of the Afsharids following Nader Shah's invasion of India, until finally coming under local rule by the Afghan Empire in 1747. Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan in 1776 during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani (a son of Ahmad Shah Durrani). In the 19th century the city was occupied by the British: after establishing foreign relations and agreements, they withdrew from Afghanistan and returned to British India.

Kabul is known for its historical gardens, bazaars, and palaces, well known examples being the Gardens of Babur and Darul Aman Palace. In the latter half of the 20th century, it became a stop on the hippie trail attracting tourists, while the city also gained the nickname Paris of Central Asia. This period of tranquility ended in 1978 with the Saur Revolution, and the subsequent Soviet military intervention in 1979 which sparked a 10-year Soviet–Afghan War. The 1990s were marked by civil wars between splinter factions of the disbanded Afghan mujahideen which destroyed much of the city. In 1996, Kabul was captured by the Taliban after four years of intermittent fighting. The Taliban-ruled city fell to the United States after the American-led invasion of Afghanistan which followed the September 11 attacks in the US in 2001. In 2021, Kabul was re-occupied by the Taliban following the withdrawal of American-led military forces from Afghanistan.


History Kabul's history dates back more than 3,500 years. It was once the centre of Zoroastrianism and subsequently also a home for Buddhists and Hindus.

The native citizens of Kabul as per the records of the British Museum are Tajiks and Pashtuns.

The city was invaded by Arab Muslims in the 7th century by introducing Islam but was slowly taken back by the Hindu Shahis of Kabul. It was re-invaded by the Saffarids and Samanids in the 9th century followed by Mahmud of Ghaznavi in the 11th century, when the Hindu Shahi King Jay Pala committed suicide. It became part of the Ghurids after defeating the Ghaznavids, and later it was invaded by the Mongols under Genghis Khan.

Timur, founder of the Timurid dynasty, invaded the region in 14th century and developed it into a major trading center. In 1504, the city fell to Babur from the north of the country and was made into his capital, which became one of the principal cities of his later Mughal Empire. In 1525, Babur described Kabulistan in his memoirs by writing that: In the country of Kābul there are many and various tribes. Its valleys and plains are inhabited by Tūrks, Aimāks, and Arabs. In the city and the greater part of the villages, the population consists of Tājiks (called "Sarts" by Babur). Many other of the villages and districts are occupied by Pashāis, Parāchis, Tājiks, Berekis, and Afghans. In the hill-country to the west, reside the Hazāras and Nukderis. Among the Nukderi tribes, there are some who speak the Moghul(mongol) language. In the hill-country to the north-east lies Kaferistān, such as Kattor and Gebrek. There are eleven or twelve different languages spoken in Kābul: Arabic, Persian, Tūrki, Moghuli, Hindi, Afghani, Pashāi, Parāchi, Geberi, Bereki, and Lamghāni…

— Baburnama, 1525 AD

For much of its time Kabul was independent until it became part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. During the First Anglo-Afghan War in 1839, the British army invaded the area but withdrew in 1842, although thousands of them were killed during a surprise ambush on their way to Jalalabad. In retaliation another British force partly burned Kabul before retreating back to British India. The British again occupied the city during the Second Anglo-Afghan War in 1879, after their resident staff were massacred there, but withdrew about a year later when they installed Emir.

In 1919, King Amanullah Khan rose to power during the Third Anglo-Afghan War when Afghanistan's capital and its eastern city of Jalalabad were air raided by the No. 31 and 114 squadrons of the British Royal Air Force in May 1919. Amanullah Khan defeated the British and began modernization of the country after the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi. In the late 1920s, switching of power took place until Zahir Shah became the youngest new King.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Kabul was known as the Paris of central Asia as it was transforming into a European style city. Once the jewel of Asia, a very progressive and moderately modern capital. Kabul in those days had, modern cinemas, cafes, formal French gardens, schools, libraries, universities, fine boutiques. The inhabitants of Kabul known as "Kabulis" were highly educated, modern, progressive and cosmopolitan people. Where women and men attended primary school, high school and university. Mini-jupes (mini skirts) were a common sight in the 1970s. Highly educated, culturally aware and yet religious at the same time, there was never an issue with not having your hair covered or the clothes you wore in the Kabul of the 1960s and 1970s. This progressive peaceful society lasted until foreign interference occurred in the late 1970s plummeting the country to what Afghanistan has become today. In December 1979, Soviet armed forces landed at Kabul International Airport to help bolster the PDPA-led government of Afghanistan.

Kabul became the Soviet command centre for approximately 10 years during their stay in Afghanistan. In February 1989, Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan after they were defeated by the Mujahideens. In spring of 1992 the government of Mohammad Najibullah collapsed, Kabul fell into the hands of Mujahideen forces. Destruction increased as the coalition of the parties broke into rival warring factions, and much of Kabul was damaged. In 1996 the Taliban took over the region and started a new strict Islamic Sharia rule which restricted most forms of education, entertainment, women from working, men from shaving beards, and many normal human activities or hobbies.

Less than a month after the September 11 attacks in the United States, in October 2001, the United States Armed Forces assisted by British Armed Forces provided massive air support to United Front (Northern Alliance) ground forces during Operation Enduring Freedom. The Taliban abandoned Kabul and the United Front came to take control of the city. In December 2001 Kabul became the capital of the Afghan Transitional Administration, which transformed to the present Government of Afghanistan that is led by President Hamid Karzai.

In early 2002 a NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was deployed in Kabul and from there they began taking over other parts of the country. The war-torn city began to see some positive development as millions of expats returned to the country. Its population has grown from about 500,000 in 2001 to over 3 million by 2007. Many foreign embassies re-opened, especially the biggest U.S. Embassy. Afghan government institutions were also re-developed and modernized. Since 2008 the newly trained Afghan National Police (ANP) and the Afghan National Army (ANA) have been in charge of security in the area, while NATO also has a heavy presence but is not patrolling the streets anymore.

While the city is being developed, it is also the scene of occasional deadly suicide bombings and explosions carried out by the Haqqani network, Taliban's Quetta Shura, Hezb-i Islami, Al Qaeda, and other anti-government elements who are allegedly supported and guided by Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) spy network.


Economy Kabul's main products included fresh and dried fruit, nuts, beverages, Afghan rugs, leather and sheep skin products, furniture, antique replicas, and domestic clothes. Local economic developments have included a number of indoor shopping malls. The first of these was the Kabul City Center, opened 2005. Others have also opened in recent years including Gulbahar Center, City Walk Mall and Majid Mall.

Mandawi Road on the south side of the river, located between Murad Khani and Shur Bazaar neighborhoods, is one of the main bazaars of Kabul. This wholesale market is very popular amongst locals. Nearby is the Sarai Shahzada money exchange market. Chicken Street is perhaps best known to foreigners.

Kabul's largest industrial hub was located in District 9, on the north banks of the River Kabul and near the airport. About 6 km (4 mi) from downtown Kabul, in Bagrami, a 9-hectare (22-acre) industrial complex had been completed with modern facilities, which allowed companies to operate businesses there. The park had professional management for the daily maintenance of public roads, internal streets, common areas, parking areas, 24 hours perimeter security, access control for vehicles and people. A number of factories operated there, including the $25 million Coca-Cola bottling plant and the Omaid Bahar juice factory. Da Afghanistan Bank, the nation's central bank, was headquartered in Kabul. In addition, there are several commercial banks in the city.

Each year about 20,000 foreign tourists visited Afghanistan.


Development planning A US$1 billion contract was signed in 2013 to commence work on the "New Kabul City", which is a major residential scheme that would accommodate 1.5 million people. Another development is the Qatar Township in Kabul.


Communications As of November 2015, there were more than 24 television stations based out of Kabul. Terrestrial TV transmitters were located at the summit of the Koh-e Asamai.

GSM/GPRS mobile phone services are provided by Afghan Wireless, Etisalat, Roshan, MTN and Salaam. They provide 4G and 3G services. In November 2006, the Afghan Ministry of Communications signed a US$64.5 million deal with ZTE on the establishment of a countrywide fibre optical cable network to help improve telephone, internet, television and radio broadcast services not just in Kabul but throughout the country.

Mail and delivery services are provided by Afghan Post, FedEx, TNT N.V., and DHL.


Hotels and other lodging Kabul has many hotels for domestic and foreign travelers. Guest houses are also found in the city. The better and safer ones are located in the Shahr-e Naw and Wazir Akbar Khan neighbourhoods (the Green Zone). The following are some of the hotels in Kabul (in alphabetical order). • Baron Hotel • Central Hotel • Darya Village Hotel • Golden Star Hotel • Kabul Inter-Continental • Kabul Serena Hotel • Kabul Star Hotel • Khyber Hotel • Park Star Hotel • Safi Landmark Hotel • Spinzar Hotel • Zohak Village


Culture and landmarks The old part of Kabul was filled with bazaars nestled along its narrow, crooked streets, examples being the Mandawi and the Bird Market (Ka Foroshi). Cultural sites included: the National Museum of Afghanistan, notably displaying an impressive statue of Surya excavated at Khair Khana, the ruined Darul Aman Palace, the tomb of Mughal Emperor Babur at Bagh-e Babur, and Chihil Sutun Park, the Minar-i-Istiqlal (Column of Independence) built in 1919 after the Third Afghan War, the tomb of Timur Shah Durrani, the Bagh-e Bala Palace and the imposing Id Gah Mosque (founded 1893). Bala Hissar was a fort which was partially destroyed during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, then restored as a military college. There was also the Kolola Pushta fort, which was garrisoned by the Afghan Army, and the nearby 19th-century Shahrara Tower fort, which was ruined in 1928. The Koh-e Asamai mountain had a temple that was considered important to Hinduism.

Other places of interest include Kabul City Center, which was Kabul's first shopping mall, the shops around Flower Street and Chicken Street, Wazir Akbar Khan district, Kabul Golf Club, Kabul Zoo, Abdul Rahman Mosque, Shah-Do Shamshira and other famous mosques, the National Gallery of Afghanistan, the National Archives of Afghanistan, Afghan Royal Family Mausoleum, the OMAR Mine Museum, Bibi Mahro Hill, Kabul Cemetery, and Paghman Gardens best known for the famous Taq-e Zafar arch. The Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) was also involved in the restoration of the Bagh-e Babur (Babur Gardens).

Maranjan Hill (Tappe-i-Maranjan) was a nearby hill where Buddhist statues and Graeco-Bactrian coins from the 2nd century BC have been found. Outside the city proper lied the Buddhist Guldara stupa and another stupa at Shewaki. Paghman and Jalalabad were interesting valleys west and east of the city. On the latter road, about 16 miles east of the city, was the Tang-e Gharu gorge.

Kabul used to have as many as 23 cinemas, but currently only had four, including the state owned Ariana Cinema. The decline of cinema of Afghanistan since the 1990s, both due to war and oppressive regimes, had meant many of these have closed. The Nandari, or Kabul National Theater, was one of the largest theaters in Asia before it was destroyed in the civil war and has not been restored. The lack of investment meant that the sector did not recover after 2001, and notably the rundown Park Cinema was controversially demolished in 2020. •


Parks • Bagh-e Babur (Gardens of Babur) • Bagh-e Chihil Sutun (Gardens of Chihil Sutun) • Bagh-e Bala Park • Zarnegar Park • Shokouh Zana • Shahr-e Naw Park • Bagh-e Zanana • Chaman-e-Hozori • Bibi Mahro Park • Lake Qargha •


Mosques • Abdul Rahman Mosque • Id Gah Mosque • Abul Fazl Shrine • Sakhi Shrine • Pul-e Khishti Mosque • Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque •


Mausoleums • Mausoleum of Timur Shah Durrani • Mausoleum of Abdur Rahman Khan • Mausoleum of Zahir Shah, Nadir Shah and other members of the royal Musahiban family • Mausoleum of Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani •


Palaces • Tajbeg Palace • Stor Palace • Darul Aman Palace • Chihil Sutun Palace • Bagh-e Bala Palace • Shah Bobo Jan Palace • Arg (Presidential Palace), including numerous other palaces inside the compound • Char Chenar Palace • Delgusha Palace and its clock tower • Haram Sara Palace • Salam Khana Palace • Kuti Baghcha •


Culture: Museums • National Museum of Afghanistan • National Archives of Afghanistan • National Gallery of Afghanistan • Negaristani Milli •


Other landmarks • Clock tower at Mahmoud Khan Bridge • Minaret of Knowledge and Ignorance • Minaret of the Unknown Corps on Jada-e Maiwand • Sherpur Cantonment (British Cemetery).


Architecture Kabul's various architectural designs reflected the various links it has had with empires and civilisations, particularly being on the ancient trade route connecting India and China with Persia and the West.

The Buddhist Chakari minaret was likely built in the Kushan era and had traces of Greco-Bactrian and Gandhara Art. It had Buddhist swastika and both Mahayana and Theravada qualities. Following the Islamic conquest, a new age of architectural realms appeared in the Kabul region. The Gardens of Babur was perhaps the best preserved example of Islamic and Mughal architecture. Emperor Babur had also built seven other big gardens in Kabul at the time. The present Gardens of Babur also reflect Afghanistan's traditional architecture by the wooden carving, pressed stucco, decorative stone masonry and other features. Another fine example of the Babur era is the Id Gah Mosque, using stones from the Punjab and Sindh and designed by Persians.

Ahmad Shah Durrani's rise as the Afghan ruler brought changes to Kabul and the nation, with a more inward-looking and self-protecting society reflecting the architecture that were no different between the rich and poor peoples. mausoleum of Timur Shah Durrani, the Afghan ruler until his death in 1793, was another example of Islamic design, built in an octagonal structure. It followed Central Asian traditions of decorative brick masonries along with a colorless appearance. After the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the country's emir Abdur Rahman Khan brought European styles for the first time. The Bagh-e Bala Palace was designed in a mixed Mughal and British Indian style, the first significant change from traditional Afghan and Islamic styles. However, palaces were still built with Central Asian Islamic design at heart. Numerous lavish buildings were created during this time, combined with large gardens. The Dilkusha Palace within the Arg was the first created by a British architect. Its accompanying clock tower, c. 1911, was also a British creation.

Houses in Kabul during this time were generally made up of walled compounds, built around courtyards and having narrow passageways to places.

In the 1920s, new styles were strongly influenced by European architectural styles due to king Amanullah Khan's visits to Europe, particularly Berlin and Paris. Darul Aman Palace was the best known example of modern Western design. The Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque was built in an unusual style for a mosque in Western and Italian style baroque. The Taq-e Zafar in Paghman and other landmarks there were also based on European designs. Houses also became more open, without having many of the walls. Later in the century, several Soviet inspired designs made its way into Kabul. Most notable of these were the various microraions built in the city in the 1960s and afterwards. A different flavor of modern style was seen on the Hotel Inter-Continental Kabul and Serena Hotel.

In the 21st century, modern designs based on glass facades became popular. Examples of this modern Western style were the Kabul City Center and Golbahar Center. The National Assembly building opened in 2015 had elements of modern Islamic Mughal architecture, considered to have the largest dome in Asia. The Indian architecture could also be influenced by the fact it was built by the government of India, but its carving and large porch represent Afghan traditional architectural forms. The new Ministry of Defense building followed traditional, Islamic and Western designs inspired by the Pentagon. Another mix of these designs appeared on the Paghman Hill Castle completed in 2014. Increasing numbers of high rises have been built in this period, with the Kabul Markaz tower in 2020 becoming the city's first to break the 100 metres (330 ft) tall barrier. The construction boom with modern high-rises throughout the 2010s had led to a major change in the city's skyline.


Transport Kabul has no train service.


Transport: Air Kabul International Airport is located 25 km (16 mi) from the centre of Kabul. It is a hub to Ariana Afghan Airlines, the national carrier of Afghanistan, as well as private airlines such as Afghan Jet International, East Horizon Airlines, Kam Air, Pamir Airways, and Safi Airways. Regional airlines such as Air India, SpiceJet, flydubai, Emirates, Gulf Air, Mahan Air, Pakistan International Airlines, Turkish Airlines and others also had regularly scheduled flights to the airport.


Transport: Road The AH76 highway (or Kabul-Charikar Highway) connected Kabul north towards Charikar, Pol-e Khomri and Mazar-i-Sharif (310 km (190 mi) away), with leading roads to Kunduz (250 km (160 mi) away). The AH77 highway went west towards Bamiyan Province (150 km (93 mi) away) and Chaghcharan in the central mountains of Afghanistan. To the south-west, the Kabul-Ghazni Highway went to Ghazni (130 km (81 mi) away) and Kandahar (460 km (290 mi) away). To the south, the Kabul-Gardez Highway connected it to Gardez (100 km (62 mi) away) and Khost. To the east, the Kabul-Jalalabad Highway went to Jalalabad (120 km (75 mi) away) and across the border to Peshawar.

Much of the road network in downtown Kabul consisted of square or circle intersections (char-rahi). The main square in the city was Pashtunistan Square (named after Pashtunistan), which had a large fountain in it and was located adjacent to the presidential palace, the Central Bank, and other landmarks. The Massoud Circle was located by the U.S. Embassy and had the road leading to the airport. In the old city, Sar-e Chawk roundabout was at the centre of Maiwand Road (Jadayi Maiwand). Once all roads led to it, and in the 16th century was called the "navel of Kabul". In the Shahr-e Naw district there were several major intersections: Ansari, Haji Yaqub, Quwayi Markaz, Sedarat, and Turabaz Khan. The latter, named after Turabaz Khan, connected Flower Street and Chicken Street. There were also two major intersections in western Kabul: the Deh Mazang Circle and Kote Sangi. Salang Watt was the main road to the north-west, whereas Asamayi Watt and Seh Aqrab (also called Sevom Aqrab) was the main road to western Kabul.

The steep population rise in the 21st century had caused major congestion problems for the city's roads. In efforts to tackle this issue, a 95 km outer ring road costing $110 million was approved in 2017. Construction would have taken five years and it will run from Char Asiab via Ahmad Shah Baba Mina, Deh Sabz ("Kabul New City" development area), the AH76 highway, Paghman and back to Char Asyab. A new bus public transport service was also planned to be opened in 2018 (see below). In September 2017, the head of the Kabul Municipality announced that 286 meters of pedestrian overpass footbridges will be built in eight busy areas "in the near future".

Under the Kabul Urban Transport Efficiency Improvement Project that was signed in 2014 and backed by the World Bank, the city has seen widespread improvements in road conditions, including the building of new pedestrian sidewalks, drainage systems, lighting and asphalted road surfaces. The project runs until 31 December 2019.

Private vehicles had been on the rise in Kabul since 2002, with about 700,000 cars registered as of 2013 and up to 80% of the cars reported to be Toyota Corollas. The number of dealerships had also increased from 77 in 2003 to over 550 by 2010. Gas stations were mainly private-owned. Bicycles on the road were a common sight in the city.


Transport: Public The taxicabs in Kabul were painted in a white and yellow livery. The majority of these were older model Toyota Corollas. A few Soviet-era Russian cabs were also still in operation.

Long-distance road journeys were made by private Mercedes-Benz coach buses or vans, trucks and cars. Although a nationwide bus service was available from Kabul, flying was safer, especially for foreigners. The city's public bus service (Millie Bus / "National Bus") was established in the 1960s to take commuters on daily routes to many destinations. The service had about 800 buses. The Kabul bus system had discovered a new source of revenue in whole-bus advertising from MTN similar to "bus wrap" advertising on public transit in more developed nations. There was also an express bus that runs from downtown to Hamid Karzai International Airport for Safi Airways passengers.

An electric trolleybus system operated in Kabul from February 1979 to 1992 using Škoda fleet built by a Czechoslovak company (see Trolleybuses in Kabul for more). The trolleybus service was highly popular mainly due to its low price compared to the Millie Bus conventional bus service. The last trolleybus came to a halt in late 1992 due to warfare – much of the copper overhead wires were later looted but a few of them, including the steel poles, can still be seen in Kabul today.

In June 2017 Kabul Municipality unveiled plans for a new bus rapid transit system, the first major urban public transportation scheme. It was expected to open by 2018, but its construction had been hampered. In March 2021, a new city bus service was launched in Kabul using American vehicles built by IC Bus, and accompanied by newly built bus stops throughout the city. Five buses entered service on one route which is expected to be expanded to a fleet of 200 buses on 16 different routes.


Internet-based participatory planning In 2019, the Nagoya Institute of Technology, in partnership with the Kabul city Municipality, jointly agreed to deploy a digital platform, called D-Agree in urban planning to provide support for stakeholders to promote meaningful public participation and help reach consensus in Kabul city planning process.

From September 2019 until the Fall of Kabul (2021) in August 2021, the platform was used on behalf of Kabul Municipality to moderate more than 300 Kabul city-related planning discussions. In these discussions, more than 15,000 citizens participated in planning activities hosted by D-Agree and generated more than 71,000 opinions which catalogued into issue-based information system regarding urban-related thematic areas. Despite the Taliban take-over, D-Agree will continue to play an important role in facilitating urban planning and infrastructure-related consultations.

In 2022, United Nations reported that D-Agree Afghanistan is used as a digital and smart city solutions in Afghanistan.

D-Agree, is a discussion support platform with artificial intelligence–based facilitation. The discussion trees in D-Agree, inspired by issue-based information system, contain a combination of four types of elements: issues, ideas, pros, and cons. The software extracts a discussion's structure in real time based on IBIS, automatically classifying all the sentences.


Education The Ministry of Education led by Ghulam Farooq Wardak was responsible for the education system in Afghanistan. Public and private schools in the city have reopened since 2002 after they were shut down or destroyed during fighting in the 1980s to the late 1990s. Boys and girls were strongly encouraged to attend school under the Karzai administration but many more schools were needed not only in Kabul but throughout the country. The Afghan Ministry of Education had plans to build more schools in the coming years so that education was provided to all citizens of the country. High schools in Kabul included: • Abdul Hadi Dawi High School, a school for boys • Abdul Rahim-e-Shaheed High School, a school for boys and girls (up to Year 6) founded in 1970 • Afghan Turk High Schools, Turkish-Afghan schools • Aisha-i-Durani School, a German-Afghan school for girls • Amani High School, a German-Afghan school for boys founded in 1924 • Ghulam Haider Khan High School, a school for boys • Habibia High School, a British-Afghan school founded in 1903 by King Habibullah Khan • International School of Kabul, an American-Afghan school • Lycée Esteqlal, a Franco-Afghan school founded in 1922 • Malalai High School, a Franco-Afghan school for girls • Nazo Ana High School, a school for boys • Rahman Baba High School, an American-Afghan school for boys.


Education: University Universities included: • Afghanistan Institute Of Higher Education • Afghan National Security University • American University of Afghanistan • Bakhtar University • Dawat University • Dunya University of Afghanistan • Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education • Gharjistan University • Kaboora Institute of Higher Education • Kabul Education University of Rabbani • Kabul Health Sciences Institute • Kabul Medical University • Kabul Polytechnic University • Kabul University • Karwan University • Kardan University • Kateb University • Khatam Al-Nabieen University • Maryam University • Mashal University • Qalam institute of higher education • Rana Institute of Higher Education • Rifah Afghanistan Institute • Salam University.


Health care Health care in Afghanistan has improved in the last two decades. There are over 5,000 hospitals and clinics in the country, with the major ones being in Kabul. • ADEI Medical Complex • Afghan-Japan Hospital • Afshar Hospital • Ahmad Shah Baba Hospital • Ariana Medical Complex • Atatürk Children's Hospital • CURE International Hospital • Daoud Khan Military Hospital • French Medical Institute for Children • Indira Gandhi Children's Hospital • Jamhuriat Hospital • Jinnah Hospital • Malalai Maternity Hospital • Maywand Hospital • Rabia-I-Balki Maternity Hospital • Wazir Akbar Khan Hospital.

Kabul Time 
Kabul Time
Image: Adobe Stock Torsten Pursche #94423523

Kabul is rated Sufficiency by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) which evaluates and ranks the relationships between world cities in the context of globalisation. Sufficiency level cities are cities that have a sufficient degree of services so as not to be overly dependent on world cities.

Kabul is rated E+ by the Global Urban Competitiveness Report (GUCR) which evaluates and ranks world cities in the context of economic competitiveness. E+ cities are strong regional gateway cities. Kabul was ranked #1335 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Kabul has a population of over 4,954,000 people. Kabul also forms the centre of the wider Kabul Province which has a population of over 5,572,630 people. Kabul is ranked #985 for startups with a score of 0.07.

To set up a UBI Lab for Kabul see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Twin towns, sister cities include:

🇹🇷 Ankara, Turkey 🇹🇷 Istanbul, Turkey 🇺🇸 Kansas City, USA 🇷🇺 Kazan, Russia 🇺🇸 Omaha, USA 🇮🇷 Tehran, Iran
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | GaWC | GUCR | Nomad | StartupBlink

Antipodal to Kabul is: -111,-34

Locations Near: Kabul 69,34

🇦🇫 Paghman 68.95,34.583 d: 65  

🇦🇫 Ghazni 68.421,33.552 d: 73.2  

🇦🇫 Bamiyan 67.833,34.817 d: 140.4  

🇦🇫 Bamyan 67.833,34.817 d: 140.4  

🇦🇫 Jalalabad 70.433,34.433 d: 140.3  

🇵🇰 Landi Kotal 71.15,34.1 d: 198.4  

🇦🇫 Asadabad 71.15,34.867 d: 219.5  

🇵🇰 Peshawar 71.573,34.008 d: 237.2  

🇦🇫 Kunduz 68.867,36.717 d: 302.3  

🇵🇰 Charsadda 71.733,34.15 d: 252.3  

Antipodal to: Kabul -111,-34

🇨🇱 Coronel -73.217,-37.017 d: 16601.1  

🇨🇱 Talcahuano -73.117,-36.717 d: 16588.7  

🇨🇱 San Pedro de la Paz -73.1,-36.833 d: 16588.6  

🇨🇱 Concepción -73.05,-36.817 d: 16584  

🇨🇱 Chiguayante -73.017,-36.917 d: 16582.2  

🇨🇱 Valdivia -73.233,-39.8 d: 16621.4  

🇨🇱 Osorno -73.133,-40.567 d: 16613.7  

🇨🇱 Temuco -72.667,-38.733 d: 16568.1  

🇨🇱 Cauquenes -72.35,-35.967 d: 16510.1  

🇨🇱 Port Montt -72.933,-41.467 d: 16595.5  

Flood Risk: Climate Central 34 69
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