Jerez de la Frontera, Province of Cádiz, Andalusia, Spain

Etymology | History : Middle Ages | Early modern period | Late modern period | Government | Economy | Geography : Location | Religious sites | Palaces and manors | Culture : Museums | Other monuments | Main factories | Other infrastructure | Wine | Carthusian breed of horses | Flamenco | Festivals | Other institutions | Circuito de Jerez | Complejo Municipal de Chapín | Domecq Stadium | Juventud Stadium | Antonio Fernández Marchán Stadium | Other sports complexes | Other sports | Education | University of Cádiz | Transport : Air | Train | Transport : Bus

🇪🇸 Jerez de la Frontera, or simply Jerez, is a Spanish city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, in south-western Spain, located midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Cádiz Mountains. The city has become the transportation and communications hub of the province and top in economic activity. Its sprawling outlying areas are a fertile zone for agriculture. There are also many cattle ranches and horse-breeding operations, as well as a world-renowned wine industry.

Currently, Jerez is the 25th largest city in Spain, the 5th in Andalusia and 1st in the Province of Cádiz. It belongs to the Municipal Association of the Bay of Cádiz (Mancomunidad de Municipios Bahía de Cádiz), the 3rd largest Andalusian metropolitan area and the 12th in Spain.

Its municipality includes the Los Alcornocales Natural Park and the Sierra de Gibalbín, also known as Montes de Propio de Jerez.

The city is located 12 km (7.46 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean, in Campiña de Jerez, a region suitable for cultivating the vineyards that produce famous sherry. Some famous places in the city are Alcazar of Jerez, Church of San Miguel, Charterhouse of Jerez, the Cathedral of San Salvador.

Since 1987 the Grand Prix motorcycle racing has been held at the Circuito de Jerez in early May. On this weekend, the city welcomes tens of thousands of bikers from around the world. The same circuit has hosted several Formula 1 Grands Prix, including the 1997 final race of the season, which was marred with controversy for a notable high-profile championship-deciding incident. Other popular festivals in the city are Feria de Jerez or the Holy Week in Jerez.

Etymology The classical Latin name of Asta Regia, unrelated to the present name, referred to an ancient city now found within Mesas de Asta, a rural district approximately 11 km (6.84 mi) from the centre of Jerez.

The current Spanish-language name came by way of the Arabic-language name شريش Sherīsh, used during the Muslim period in Iberia. The placename was rendered as Xerez or Xerés (Old Spanish pronunciation: [/ʃeˈɾes̪/]) in old Romance sources. The name of the famous fortified wine, sherry, represents an adaptation of the city's Arabic name, Sherish. Frontera is the Spanish-language cognate of 'frontier', owing to being located on the border between the Moorish and Christian regions on the Iberian Peninsula during the 13th century. Upon the Modern-era readjustment and simplification of Spanish-language sibilant phonemes (including /ʃ/ changed into /x/) the spelling of the placename ended up being changed accordingly.

The old spelling "Xerez" as the name given to the city survived in several foreign languages until very recently, and today continues to influence the name given to sherry: Portuguese Xerez, Catalan Xerès, English sherry /ˈʃɛri/, French Xérès. The city's main football team continues to use the old spelling, Xerez.

History Traces of human presence in the area date from the upper Neolithic, and humans have inhabited Jerez de la Frontera since at least the Copper or Neolithic Age, but the identity of the first natives remains unclear. The first major protohistoric settlement in the area (around the third millennium BC) is attributed to the Tartessians. Jerez later became a Roman city under the name of Asta Regia (located 8 km further north at Cortijo el Rosario).

History: Middle Ages After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Vandals and the Visigoths ruled the area until the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the early 8th century. In the 11th century it briefly became the seat of an independent taifa. Some years later 'Abdun ibn Muhammad united it with Arcos de la Frontera and ruled both (ca. 1040–1053). In 1053 it was annexed to Seville. From 1145 to 1147 the region of Arcos and Jerez briefly operated as an emirate under the dependency of Granada, led by Abu'l-Qasim Ahyal. Later the Almohads conquered the city. In the 12th and 13th centuries Jerez underwent a period of great development, building its defense system and setting the current street layout of the old town.

In 1231 the Battle of Jerez took place within Jerez. Christian troops under the command of Álvaro Pérez de Castro, lord of the House of Castro and grandson of Alfonso VII, king of Castile and León, defeated the troops of the Emir Ibn Hud, despite the numerical superiority of the latter. After a month-long siege in 1261, the city surrendered to Castile, but its Muslim population remained. It rebelled and was finally defeated in 1264.

Due to its agriculture-based economy and demographics, Jerez was already a major city of the Lower Andalusia towards the end of the Middle Ages.

Early modern period The discovery of the Americas and the conquest of Granada, in 1492, made Jerez one of the most prosperous cities of Andalusia through trade and through its proximity to the ports of Seville and Cádiz. Attracted by the economic possibilities offered by the winemaking business, a substantial foreign European population (English, Flemish, Portuguese and, most notably, Genoese) installed in the city. Together with the local wealthy class, they participated in slave ownership.

Despite the social, economic and political decadence that occurred in the seventeenth century, towards the end of the Habsburg rule, the city managed to maintain a reasonable pace of development, becoming world-famous for its wine industry.

Late modern period In January 1892, a peasant uprising took place in Jerez and its violent repression lead to a series of protests and revenge bombings in the next decade.

Government The city of Jerez is governed by the ayuntamiento (municipality) of Jerez, whose representatives, as in other towns in Spain, are elected every four years by universal suffrage for all citizens older than 18 years of age. The body is chaired by the mayor of Jerez.

Economy The economy of Jerez has traditionally been centred on the wine industry, with exports of sherry worldwide. Because it lacks the civil service that other cities enjoy, Jerez has based its economy on industry. The cultivation of fruits, grains, and vegetables and horse and cattle husbandry has also been important to the local economy. It is the home base for the Spanish Military Stud farm, the Yeguada Militar de Jerez de la Frontera.

After the wine crisis in the 1990s, the city is now seeking to expand its industrial base. Tourism has been successfully promoted. The city's strong identity as a centre for wine, flamenco, and horses, its popular festivals, MotoGP hosting and its historical heritage have contributed to this success.

The city is the home of Jerez Airport and has also been positioning itself as a logistics hub for western Andalucia, through the integration between the airport, the rail system and nearby ports.

Geography: Location Jerez de la Frontera is located in the region of Campiña de Jerez, which includes the municipalities of Jerez de la Frontera and San José del Valle. The territory of the region corresponds to the previous municipality of the city of Jerez, before the disintegration of San José del Valle in 1995. The municipality of Jerez is the largest in the province of Cadiz and the sixth in Spain with 1188 square kilometers.

The region of the Campiña de Jerez is crossed by the Guadalete River. There are several wetlands in its territory, such as the lagoons of Medina and Torrox. There are also the Montes de Propio de Jerez, included in the Natural Park of Los Alcornocales. Its agriculture is known for the designation of origin of its wine, sherry, grown in the triangle formed between Jerez de la Frontera, Sanlúcar de Barrameda and El Puerto de Santa María.

Jerez de la Frontera is located 6 km (3.7 mi) from El Puerto de Santa Maria, 12 km (7.5 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean and 85 km (53 mi) from the Strait of Gibraltar. The city is one of the six municipalities that make up the Metropolitan Area of the Bay of Cadiz-Jerez, a polynuclear urban agglomeration formed by the municipalities of Cadiz, Chiclana de la Frontera, Jerez de la Frontera, Puerto Real, El Puerto de Santa Maria and San Fernando located in the Bay of Cadiz.

Religious sites • The Cathedral • Church of San Miguel (15th century), in Gothic–Baroque style • Church of San Mateo, in Gothic style, the oldest in the city • The Charterhouse • Church of Santiago, dating to the time of Alfonso X of Castile (reigned 1252–1284) • Church of San Juan de los Caballeros, created after Alfonso X's conquest of the city in 1264 • Church of San Marcos (13th century) • Church of San Dionisio (13th century), built around 1457 • Church of San Lucas, built over an old mosque • Church of San Francisco, containing the grave of Queen Blanca de Borbón (died 1361) • Church of San Pedro • Chapel of San Juan de Letrán • Calvary Chapel • Chapel of Los Desamparados • Convent of San José • Convent of Santa María de Gracia • Convento of Espíritu Santo • Hermitage of San Isidro Labrador • Hermitage of San Telmo • Church of Santo Domingo • Church of Los Descalzos • Convent of Las Reparadoras • Church of La Victoria • Hermitage of La Ina • Basílica del Carmen de Jerez

Palaces and manors • Casa-palacio de la calle Lealas, número 20 • Casa-palacio de los Ponce de León • Casa de los Basurto • Casa Petra de la Riva • Palace of Marqués de Montana • Palacio Dávila • Palacio de Bertemati • Palacio de Campo Real • Palacio de Riquelme • Palacio de los Condes de Montegil • Palacio de los Condes de Puerto Hermoso • Palacio de los Morla y Melgarejo • Palacio de Luna • Palacio de Mirabal • Palacio de Villapanés • Palacio de Villavicencio • Palacio del Barón de Algar del Campo • Palacio del Conde de los Andes • Palacio del Marqués de Villamarta • Palacio Duque de Abrantes • Palacio Pemartín • Palacio San Blas

Culture: Museums • Archaeological Museum • Bullfighting Museum • Nativity scene Museum • Museos de la Atalaya • Pinacoteca Rivero • Museo del Traje Andaluz • Museo de Tecnología Agraria Antonio Cabral • Museo del Enganche

Other monuments • Old City Hall of Jerez de la Frontera, built in 1575 • Alcazar of Jerez de la Frontera, a Moorish fortress, dating to the 11th century • Zoo and Botanical Garden of Jerez. • Villamarta Theatre • Gallo Azul, built in 1927 • Walls of Jerez de la Frontera

Main factories • González Byass • Domecq • Grupo Estévez • Grupo Garvey • Williams & Humbert • Bodegas de Pilar Plá • Bodegas Tradición • Sánchez Romate • Bodegas Lustau

Other infrastructure • Crocodile Farm Kariba, unique in Spain. • Circuit of Jerez • Jerez Airport • Fair Institution of Cádiz • Chapín Stadium • Walk of Fame Jerez de la Frontera • Military Stud of de Jerez de la Frontera • Jerez Bullring • Roundabout of Minotaur • Playground "Children's City" • Water Tower of Jerez • Old fish market • Sala Compañía • Centro Andaluz de Flamenco • Zoco de Artesanía de Jerez • Children's Traffic Park.

Wine Jerez is the world capital of sherry, a fortified wine made from white grapes grown near the city of Jerez. Jerez has been a centre of viniculture since the Phoenicians introduced winemaking to Spain in 1100 BC. The Romans continued the practice after they took control of Iberia around 200 BC. The Moors conquered the region in AD 711 and introduced distillation, which led to the development of brandy and fortified wine. Because sherry was a major wine export to the United Kingdom, British families founded many of the Jerez cellars. The city has many bodegas (wineries), many of which are of British origin. The most important include: • González Byass: Manuel María González Angel founded this bodega in 1835, and his English agent, Robert Blake Byass subsequently joined in. The firm produces the fino sherry Tío Pepe. • Williams & Humbert: This is a winery located in Jerez de la Frontera dedicated to the production of sherry wines and brandies and other liqueurs. Sir Alexander Williams and Arthur Humbert founded it in 1877. • Grupo Garvey: founded in 1780 by William Garvey Power. • Grupo Estévez: owns the Marqués del Real Tesoro and Valdespin bodegas. With origins dating from 1430, Valdespino is one of the oldest bodegas in the area. • Domecq: is a winemaking company founded by Álvaro Domecq Díez's father.

Brandy de Jerez is a brandy exclusively produced within the "Sherry Triangle" (which is bounded by Jerez de la Frontera, El Puerto de Santa María and Sanlúcar de Barrameda, all in the province of Cádiz). Brandy de Jerez is used in Spanish cuisine, especially with meats.

Carthusian breed of horses Jerez is the original home of the Carthusian sub-strain of the Andalusian horse breed, known as the Caballo cartujano in Spain. In the latter 1400s, the Carthusian monks began breeding horses on lands donated by Álvaro Obertos de Valeto for construction of the Charterhouse of Jerez de la Frontera (la Cartuja de Jerez de la Frontera). When the Spanish Crown decreed that Spanish horse breeders should breed their Andalusian stock with Neapolitan and central European stock, the monks refused to comply, and continued to select their best specimens to develop their own jealously guarded bloodline for almost four hundred years.

Jerez is the home of the Royal Andalusian School of Equestrian Art, a riding school comparable to the famous Spanish Riding School of Vienna.

Another famous equine institution headquartered in Jerez is the Yeguada Militar de Jerez de la Frontera (known outside Spain as the Yeguada Militar), the Spanish military stud farm dedicated to the breeding of purebred Andalusian and Arabian horses. Founded in 1847, it became the official stud farm of the Spanish military in 1893.

The 2002 FEI World Equestrian Games were held in Jerez at the Estadio Municipal de Chapín, which was remodeled for the event, from September 10 to September 22, 2002. This was the 4th edition of the games, which are held every four years and run by the FEI.

Flamenco Jerez is proud of its Andalusian Centre of Flamenco, which was founded in 1993 to safeguard and promote the values and standards of flamenco. It is devoted to the investigation, recovery, and collection of flamenco-related historical documents, whether they are in audio, visual, or journalistic form. It also has a collection of flamenco artifacts, including musical instruments, costumes, promotional posters, sheet music, and postcards. The centre operates a museum and library to help educate the public and serve as a resource for scholars. Many of the most famous personalities of the city are or were involved in the performance of flamenco, including La Paquera de Jerez, Lola Flores and José Mercé.

Festivals Since 1987 the Grand Prix motorcycle racing has been held at the Circuito de Jerez in early May. Thousands of motorbikers from around the world come to the city this week to watch the MotoGP race held in Jerez annually. The race is one of the most watched races in Europe.

Another popular festival is the Feria del Caballo (declared a festival of international tourist interest), one of the most famous Spanish fairs, and the most important fair in the province of Cádiz. It is celebrated annually in the Parque González Hontoria for one week in May, occurring always after the Spanish motorcycle Grand Prix. The a fair dedicated mainly to the horse. All booths (casetas) at the fair are open to the public, so that attendees may walk into any one of them and enjoy the food, drinks, and dancing. This is one of the main features that differentiates the Feria de Jerez from the rest of the Andalusian Fairs, such as the Seville Fair, where most of the casetas are private and only card-holding members are allowed in.

Holy Week in Jerez, as in other cities in Andalusia, commemorates the Passion of Jesus Christ. It is celebrated by Catholic religious brotherhoods and fraternities that perform penance processions on the streets during the last week of Lent, the week immediately before Easter. The Holy Week of Jerez de la Frontera stands out for being one of the most important in Andalusia in terms of number of brotherhoods, quality in its carvings and iconographic sets. Holy Week in Jerez was declared of National Tourist Interest in 1993.

During the Christmas season, from the end of November to the end of December, many peñas (religious and cultural clubs) celebrate the holidays with public festivals where anyone can go to drink, eat, dance and sing Christmas carols, accompanied by friction drums called zambombas.

There are also: • Flamenco festival de Jerez • Carnival of Jerez • Fiestas de la Vendimia (Declared a festival of international tourist interest)

Other institutions The old quarter of Jerez, dating from medieval times, has been named an "Artistic Historic Complex". The Easter week celebrations in Jerez are of "National Touristic Interest", and its remarkable Feria del Caballo in May is an event of "International Touristic Interest".

The Andalusian Flamenco Centre is located in the Pemartín Palace (Palacio de Pemartín) and offers a library, displays, video films and live demonstrations of the art of flamenco dancing.

Circuito de Jerez The city of Jerez is the first motorcycling world capital. It is the site of Circuito de Jerez, formerly called the Circuito Permanente de Jerez, where the annual MotoGP Motorcycle Grand Prix is contested.

The race course is also a prime destination for Formula One teams wishing to perform off-season testing. In the past it has hosted the F1 race itself, namely the Spanish Grand Prix between 1986 and 1990, before the race moved permanently to the Catalunya Circuit near Barcelona. Since then Jerez has hosted Formula One races a few times, with the designation of the European Grand Prix in 1994 and the controversial race in 1997.

Complejo Municipal de Chapín The Complejo Municipal de Chapín is a complex of sports facilities that includes a football stadium and field, a baseball field, equestrian facilities and a Sports Hall, as well as a futsal field and basketball and volleyball courts.

The Estadio Municipal de Chapín, a multi-purpose stadium, was built in 1988 and seats 20,523 spectators. In 2002 the stadium was remodeled to hold the 2002 FEI World Equestrian Games. The whole grandstand was covered with a roof, and a hotel and spa-gym were added. It was historically the home of Xerez CD, the city's club founded in 1947 and known simply as Xerez, which played in the top division in the 2009–2010 season. Currently, the stadium is the home of Xerez Deportivo FC, founded in 2013 to replace the old Xerez club.

The stadium, which has a running track, was designated as an Olympic Stadium. The most important track team training there is the Club Atletismo Xerez Deportivo FC, which won the Spanish championships in 2001–2007.

Canasta Unibasket Jerez and DKV Jerez are the city's basketball teams; they play in Palacio Municipal de Deportes de Chapín.

Venenciadores de Jerez, the city's baseball team, is currently without a home field and awaits completion of one in the Complejo Municipal de Chapín.

The main futsal team in Jerez is Xerez Deportivo FC (also known as Xerez Toyota Nimauto for sponsorship reasons). It was founded in 2014 and currently plays in the Ruiz Mateos Sports Center and the Palacio Municipal de Deportes de Chapín in Segunda Andaluza.

The most important rugby club is Club Rugby Xerez, which trains at the Pradera Hípica in Chapín.

Domecq Stadium The Domecq Stadium was the first football stadium in Jerez de la Frontera. It was the home of Xerez CD and Jerez Industrial CF before its demolition. The Stadium del Parque (Park Stadium) was built in 1923 and remodeled (with the name of Domecq Stadium) in 1932 by the architect Francisco Hernández Rubio. It held 20,523 and it was demolished in 1988.

Juventud Stadium Currently, the Juventud Stadium is the oldest stadium in the city. It holds 5,000 and is the home of Jerez Industrial CF, founded in 1951, the main rival of Xerez.

Formerly, the football field belonged to the youth hostel which is located in the vicinity thereof, hence its name.

Antonio Fernández Marchán Stadium It is the CD Guadalcacín stadium, which plays in the Tercera Division. It is placed in Guadalcacín, a neighborhood northern Jerez.

Other sports complexes • Complejo Deportivo de La Granja • Campo de fútbol de La Canaleja • Campo de Fútbol Manuel Millán • Campo de fútbol Juan Fernández Simón • Campo de fútbol de Picadueña • Polideportivo Ruiz-Mateos

Other sports The 2014 Vuelta a España cycle race began in Jerez de la Frontera on 23 August, with a 12.6 km (7.8 mi) team time trial. The race followed a 21-stage route, finishing in Santiago de Compostela on 14 September.

Club Natación Jerez, is the main Swimming Club in Jerez. It has won the "Campeonato de España Master" ("Championship of Spain Master") many times.

Education There are 76 elementary schools, 41 secondary schools, 12 adult education centres and 10 public libraries in the city of Jerez.

University of Cádiz The University of Cádiz, the provincial university, has a campus in Jerez. It specialises in socio-political studies.

The city is also home to a member of the Official School of Languages (Escuela Oficial de Idiomas) and a centre of the National Distance Education University (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED).

Transport: Air El Aeropuerto de Jerez, also known as Aeropuerto de La Parra, is the main airport in the province of Cádiz. It is located 8 km (5 mi) north of the city centre and is connected to the city by train and bus.

It was built in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by the Nationalists in order to transport soldiers from Africa to Spain. The airport was open to civil traffic in 1992. It is the third most important airport in Andalucia after Malaga and Seville.

Train Jerez has had a railway line since 1854, which was one of the first in Spain, the Alcázar de San Juan–Cádiz railway. The line went between Jerez and El Puerto de Santa María and transported wine barrels for export. Jerez de la Frontera railway station is used by more passengers than Cádiz and is the fourth busiest in Andalucia.

Next to the Aeropuerto de Jerez, there is a new train station which connects the airport through the Cercanías Cádiz line C-1 to nearby Jerez, and also to Cádiz, Sevilla, Lebrija, Utrera, El Puerto de Santa María, and San Fernando.

Transport: Bus The city of Jerez has 16 bus lines: • L 1 Esteve-San Telmo-Constitución • L 2 Esteve-Picadueñas • L 3 Esteve-La Plata-Mosto-San Juan de Dios • L 4 Esteve-García Lorca-El Altillo • L 5 Esteve-Campus-Guadalcacín • L 6 Esteve-Campus-La Granja • L 7 Angustias-La Pita-Estella del Marqués • L 8 Circunvalación I • L 9 Circunvalación II • L 10 Canaleja-Atlántico-Esteve-Hacienda-Hospital • L 12 Alcázar-C. Salud San Telmo-El Portal/Guadabajaque • L 13 Alcázar-Blas Infante-Asisa • L 14 Esteve-Villas Este-La Marquesa • L 16 Casinos-Hipercor-Ortega Y Gasset • L 19 Nueva Jarilla-Guadalcacín-Angustias • L 20 Rotonda-García Lorca-Guadalcacín; Intercity buses From Jerez are made regular trips to the following towns: • Alcalá del Valle • Algeciras • Barbate • Cádiz • Chiclana de la Frontera • Chipiona • El Puerto de Santa María • Los Barrios • Madrid • Málaga • Medina-Sidonia • Ronda • Rota • San José del Valle • San Fernando • Sanlúcar de Barrameda • Sevilla • Trebujena • Zahara de los Atunes.

Madrid Time 
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Image: Adobe Stock OscarStock #199193913

Jerez de la Frontera has a population of over 212,876 people. Jerez de la Frontera also forms one of the centres of the wider Cádiz Province which has a population of over 1,240,175 people. Jerez de la Frontera is the #438 hipster city in the world, with a hipster score of 1.0116 according to the Hipster Index which evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to the number of vegan eateries, coffee shops, tattoo studios, vintage boutiques, and record stores.

To set up a UBI Lab for Jerez de la Frontera see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Jerez de la Frontera has links with:

🇫🇷 Arles, France 🇫🇷 Biarritz, France 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 Bristol, England 🇪🇸 Castro Urdiales, Spain 🇲🇽 Ciudad Juárez, Mexico 🇫🇷 Cognac, France 🇺🇸 El Paso, USA 🇧🇷 Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil 🇯🇵 Kiyosu, Japan 🇵🇪 Moquegua, Perú 🇨🇿 Pardubice, Czech Republic 🇵🇪 Pisco, Perú 🇲🇽 Zacatecas, Mexico
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | Hipster Index

Antipodal to Jerez de la Frontera is: 173.865,-36.691

Locations Near: Jerez de la Frontera -6.13495,36.6909

🇪🇸 El Puerto de Santa María -6.228,36.597 d: 13.3  

🇪🇸 Puerto de Santa María -6.228,36.597 d: 13.3  

🇪🇸 Cádiz -6.29,36.53 d: 22.6  

🇪🇸 San Fernando -6.197,36.466 d: 25.6  

🇪🇸 Lebrija -6.067,36.917 d: 25.8  

🇪🇸 Sanlúcar de Barrameda -6.358,36.778 d: 22.1  

🇪🇸 Chiclana de la Frontera -6.15,36.417 d: 30.5  

🇪🇸 Medina-Sidonia -5.917,36.467 d: 31.6  

🇪🇸 Dos Hermanas -5.928,37.283 d: 68.3  

🇪🇸 Alcalá de Guadaíra -5.85,37.333 d: 75.8  

Antipodal to: Jerez de la Frontera 173.865,-36.691

🇳🇿 Hibiscus Coast 174.698,-36.606 d: 19940.2  

🇳🇿 North Shore City 174.75,-36.8 d: 19935.3  

🇳🇿 Auckland 174.763,-36.853 d: 19933.1  

🇳🇿 Whangārei 174.326,-35.725 d: 19900  

🇳🇿 Hamilton 175.28,-37.788 d: 19840.2  

🇳🇿 Cambridge 175.467,-37.883 d: 19821  

🇳🇿 Tauranga 176.154,-37.7 d: 19783.4  

🇳🇿 Stratford 174.283,-39.333 d: 19719  

🇳🇿 Rotorua 176.25,-38.133 d: 19750.4  

🇳🇿 Taupō 176.072,-38.687 d: 19720.2  

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