🇹🇷 İzmir, often spelled Izmir in English, is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia. It is the third most populous city in Turkey and the second largest urban agglomeration on the Aegean Sea.
Its built-up (or metro) area includes 9 out of 11 urban districts (all but Urla and Guzelbahce not yet agglomerated) plus Menemen and Menderes largely conurbated. It extends along the outlying waters of the Gulf of İzmir and inland to the north across the Gediz River Delta; to the east along an alluvial plain created by several small streams; and to slightly more rugged terrain in the south.
İzmir has more than 3,000 years of recorded urban history, and up to 8,500 years of history as a human settlement since the Neolithic period. In classical antiquity the city was known as Smyrna (Σμύρνη) – a name which remained in use in English and various other languages until around 1930, when government efforts led the original Greek name to be gradually phased out internationally in favour of its Turkish counterpart İzmir. Lying on an advantageous location at the head of a gulf running down in a deep indentation, midway along the western Anatolian coast, İzmir has been one of the principal mercantile cities of the Mediterranean Sea for much of its history. It hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1971 and the World University Games (Universiade) in 2005. The city participated in Climathon in 2019.
Economy The port of Izmir is Turkey's main port for exports in terms of the freight handled and its free zone is the leader among the twenty in Turkey.
Trade through the city's port had a determinant importance for the economy of the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the 19th century and the economic foundations of the early decades of Turkey's Republican era were also laid here during the İzmir Economic Congress.
At present, İzmir area's economy is divided in value between various types of activities, as follows: 30.5% for industry, 22.9% for trade and related services, 13.5% for transportation and communication and 7.8% for agriculture. In 2008, İzmir provided 10.5% of all tax revenues collected by Turkey and its exports corresponded to 6% and its imports to 4% of Turkey's foreign trade.
The province as a whole is Turkey's third largest exporter after Istanbul and Bursa, and the fifth largest importer. 85–90% of the region's exports and approximately one fifth of all Turkish exports are made through the Port of Alsancak with an annual container loading capacity of close to a million.
Education There are a total of nine active universities in and near İzmir. The city is also home to well-rooted higher-education establishments that are renowned across Turkey, such as the İzmir Anatolian Vocational High School of Commerce (İzmir Anadolu Ticaret Lisesi) established in 1854, and the American Collegiate Institute (ACI) which was established in 1878.
Transport İzmir is served by domestic and international flights through the Adnan Menderes International Airport and by modern rapid transit systems serving the entirety of İzmir's metropolitan area. The city has attracted investors through its strategic location and its relatively new and highly developed technological infrastructure in transportation, telecommunications, and energy.
İzmir is rated Sufficiency by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) which evaluates and ranks the relationships between world cities in the context of globalisation. Sufficiency level cities are cities that have a sufficient degree of services so as not to be overly dependent on world cities.
İzmir is rated D+ by the Global Urban Competitiveness Report (GUCR) which evaluates and ranks world cities in the context of economic competitiveness. D+ cities are strong regional hub cities. İzmir was ranked #314 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. İzmir has a population of over 2,965,900 people. İzmir also forms the centre of the wider İzmir Province which has a population of over 4,367,251 people. İzmir is ranked #384 for startups with a score of 0.583.
Twin Towns, Sister Cities İzmir has links with: 🇮🇹 Ancona, Italy; 🇲🇩 Bălți, Moldova; 🇩🇪 Bremen, Germany; 🇷🇴 Constanța, Romania; 🇨🇾 Famagusta, Cyprus; 🇧🇬 Kardzhali, Bulgaria; 🇧🇦 Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 🇨🇾 North Nicosia, Cyprus; 🇩🇰 Odense, Denmark; 🇨🇿 Plzeň, Czech Republic; 🇭🇷 Split, Croatia; 🇮🇹 Turin, Italy; 🇷🇺 Volgograd, Russia; 🇦🇿 Baku, Azerbaijan; 🇰🇬 Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan; 🇮🇳 Mumbai, India; 🇰🇿 Shymkent, Kazakhstan; 🇺🇿 Bukhara, Uzbekistan; 🇮🇱 Tel Aviv, Israel; 🇨🇳 Tianjin, China; 🇹🇲 Türkmenabat, Turkmenistan; 🇨🇳 Wuhan, Hubei, China; 🇨🇳 Xiamen, Fujian, China; 🇹🇳 Sousse, Tunisia; 🇿🇦 Cape Town, South Africa; 🇨🇺 Havana, Cuba; 🇺🇸 Tampa, United States; 🇺🇸 Long Beach, United States.