Hong Kong, The Central and Western District

Economy

🇭🇰 Hong Kong (香港,), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a special administrative region of People's Republic of China. Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world. As a special administrative region, Hong Kong maintains separate governing and economic systems from that of mainland China under the principle of "one country, two systems".

The territory is one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports. It is the world's tenth-largest exporter and ninth-largest importer.

Hong Kong has a major capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation and free trade, and its currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the world. Hong Kong is home to the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world, the highest number of billionaires of any city in Asia, and the largest concentration of ultra high-net-worth individuals of any city in the world. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, severe income inequality exists among the population.

Hong Kong is a highly developed territory and ranks fourth on the UN Human Development Index. The city has the largest number of skyscrapers of any city in the world, and its residents have some of the highest life expectancies in the world. The dense space led to a developed transportation network with public transport rates exceeding 90 percent.

Economy Hong Kong has a market economy focused on services, characterised by low taxation, minimal government market intervention, and an established international financial market. It is the world's 35th-largest economy, with a nominal GDP of approximately US$373 billion. Hong Kong's economy ranked at the top of the Heritage Foundation's economic freedom index between 1995 and 2021. However, Hong Kong was removed from the index by the Heritage Foundation in 2021, with the Foundation citing a "loss of political freedom and autonomy … [making Hong Kong] almost indistinguishable in many respects from other major Chinese commercial centres like Shanghai and Beijing". The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the seventh-largest in the world, with a market capitalisation of HK$30.4 trillion (US$3.87 trillion) as of December 2018. Hong Kong is ranked as the 14th most innovative territory in the Global Innovation Index in 2022. The city is sometimes referred to as "Silicon Harbor", a nickname derived from Silicon Valley in California. Hong Kong hosts several high tech and innovation companies, including several multinational companies.

Hong Kong is the tenth-largest trading entity in exports and imports (2017), trading more goods in value than its gross domestic product. Over half of its cargo throughput consists of transshipments (goods travelling through Hong Kong). Products from mainland China account for about 40% of that traffic. The city's location allowed it to establish a transportation and logistics infrastructure which includes the world's seventh-busiest container port and the busiest airport for international cargo. The territory's largest export markets are mainland China and the United States. Hong Kong is a key part of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. It has little arable land and few natural resources, importing most of its food and raw materials. More than 90% of Hong Kong's food is imported, including nearly all of its meat and rice. Agricultural activity is 0.1% of GDP and consists of growing premium food and flower varieties.

Although the territory had one of Asia's largest manufacturing economies during the latter half of the colonial era, Hong Kong's economy is now dominated by the service sector. The sector generates 92.7% of economic output, with the public sector accounting for about 10%. Between 1961 and 1997 Hong Kong's gross domestic product increased by a factor of 180, and per capita GDP increased by a factor of 87. The territory's GDP relative to mainland China's peaked at 27% in 1993; it fell to less than 3% in 2017, as the mainland developed and liberalised its economy. Economic and infrastructure integration with China has increased significantly since the 1978 start of market liberalisation on the mainland. Since resumption of cross-boundary train service in 1979, many rail and road links have been improved and constructed, facilitating trade between regions. The Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement formalised a policy of free trade between the two areas, with each jurisdiction pledging to remove remaining obstacles to trade and cross-boundary investment. A similar economic partnership with Macau details the liberalisation of trade between the special administrative regions. Chinese companies have expanded their economic presence in the territory since the transfer of sovereignty. Mainland firms represent over half of the Hang Seng Index value, up from 5% in 1997.

As the mainland liberalised its economy, Hong Kong's shipping industry faced intense competition from other Chinese ports. Half of China's trade goods were routed through Hong Kong in 1997, dropping to about 13% by 2015. The territory's minimal taxation, common law system, and civil service attract overseas corporations wishing to establish a presence in Asia. The city has the second-highest number of corporate headquarters in the Asia-Pacific region. Hong Kong is a gateway for foreign direct investment in China, giving investors open access to mainland Chinese markets through direct links with the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. The territory was the first market outside mainland China for renminbi-denominated bonds, and is one of the largest hubs for offshore renminbi trading. In November 2020, Hong Kong's Financial Services and the Treasury Bureau proposed a new law that will restrict cryptocurrency trading to professional investors only, leaving amateur traders (93% of Hong Kong's trading population) out of the market.

The government has had a passive role in the economy. Colonial governments had little industrial policy and implemented almost no trade controls. Under the doctrine of "positive non-interventionism", post-war administrations deliberately avoided the direct allocation of resources; active intervention was considered detrimental to economic growth. While the economy transitioned to a service basis during the 1980s, late colonial governments introduced interventionist policies. Post-handover administrations continued and expanded these programmes, including export-credit guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme, a minimum wage, anti-discrimination laws, and a state mortgage backer.

Tourism is a major part of the economy, accounting for 5% of GDP. In 2016, 26.6 million visitors contributed HK$258 billion (US$32.9 billion) to the territory, making Hong Kong the 14th most popular destination for international tourists. It is the most popular Chinese city for tourists, receiving over 70% more visitors than its closest competitor (Macau). The city is ranked as one of the most expensive cities for expatriates. However, since 2020, there has been a sharp decline in incoming visitors due to tight COVID-19 travel restrictions. Additionally, due to the closure of Russian airspace in 2022, multiple airlines decided to cease their operations in Hong Kong.

Hong Kong, The Central and Western District 
<b>Hong Kong, The Central and Western District</b>
Image: Adobe Stock ake1150 #290962112

Hong Kong is rated Alpha + by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) which evaluates and ranks the relationships between world cities in the context of globalisation. Alpha level cities are linked to major economic states and regions and into the world economy, Alpha + cities are highly integrated cities, filling advanced service needs

Hong Kong is the #3 city in the world according to the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) which evaluates and ranks the competitiveness of the major financial centres of the world according to a wide range of criteria – Human Capital, Business, Finance, Infrastructure and Reputation.

Hong Kong is the #9 city in the world according to the Global Power City Index (GPCI) which evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to their magnetism, or their comprehensive power to attract people, capital, and enterprises from around the world. It does so through measuring six key functions: Economy, Research and Development, Cultural Interaction, Liveability, Environment, and Accessibility.

Hong Kong is ranked #13 and rated B by the Global Urban Competitiveness Report (GUCR) which evaluates and ranks world cities in the context of economic competitiveness. B cities are international hub cities. Hong Kong has a population of over 7,298,600 people. Hong Kong also forms the centre of the wider Hong Kong Region which has a population of over 7,491,000 people. Hong Kong is ranked #32 for startups with a score of 13.2.

To set up a UBI Lab for Hong Kong see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Twin Towns - Sister Cities Hong Kong has links with:

🇯🇵 ÅŒsaka, Japan
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | GPCI | GFCI | GaWC | GUCR | StartupBlink

  • Herbert Marshall Spence |

    🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 Architect Herbert Marshall Spence is associated with Hong Kong. Spence was employed in the China Office of the Ministry of Works from 1911 until 1919.

  • Cyril Arthur Farey |

    🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 Architect/Painter Cyril Arthur Farey is associated with Hong Kong.

  • Terence Stanley Crathern Feltham |

    🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 🇭🇰 Architect Terence Stanley Crathern Feltham is associated with Hong Kong. He was a founding member of the Hong Kong Institute of Architects in 1956.

  • Keith Murray |

    🇳🇿 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 Architect/Ceramist/Glass Designer/Silversmith Keith Murray is associated with Hong Kong. During World War One he served with distinction in the Royal Flying Corps.

Antipodal to Hong Kong is: -65.8,-22.3

Locations Near: Hong Kong 114.2,22.3

🇭🇰 North Point 114.2,22.3 d: 0  

🇭🇰 Kowloon 114.183,22.317 d: 2.6  

🇭🇰 Ho Man Tin 114.183,22.317 d: 2.6  

🇭🇰 Ngau Tau Kok 114.217,22.317 d: 2.6  

🇭🇰 Kwun Tong 114.225,22.315 d: 3.1  

🇭🇰 Wan Chai 114.172,22.28 d: 3.7  

🇭🇰 Shau Kei Wan 114.23,22.279 d: 3.8  

🇭🇰 Wong Tai Sin 114.183,22.333 d: 4.1  

🇭🇰 Man Kok 114.167,22.317 d: 3.9  

🇭🇰 Mong Kok 114.167,22.317 d: 3.9  

Antipodal to: Hong Kong -65.8,-22.3

🇧🇴 Tarija -64.733,-21.533 d: 19875.9  

🇦🇷 Oran -64.333,-23.133 d: 19838.4  

🇦🇷 San Ramón de la Nueva Orán -64.333,-23.133 d: 19838.4  

🇦🇷 Libertador General San Martin -64.783,-23.8 d: 19818.5  

🇦🇷 San Salvador de Jujuy -65.309,-24.18 d: 19800.1  

🇦🇷 Salta -65.409,-24.79 d: 19735.4  

🇧🇴 Potosí -65.75,-19.583 d: 19713  

🇨🇱 Calama -68.933,-22.467 d: 19692.4  

🇧🇴 Sucre -65.263,-19.043 d: 19648.6  

🇧🇴 Oruro -67.117,-17.967 d: 19514  

Bing Map

Option 1