🇪🇹 Harar[a] (ሐረር) is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia. It is known in Arabic as the City of Saints (مدينة الأَوْلِيَاء).
Harar is the capital city of the Harari Region. The city also serves as the administrative centre of the East Hararghe Zone in the Oromia Region. The ancient city is located on a hilltop in the eastern part of the country and is about five hundred km from the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa at an elevation of 1,885 metres (6,184 ft).
For centuries, Harar has been a major commercial centre, linked by the trade routes with the rest of Ethiopia, the entire Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Asia, and through its ports, the outside world. Harar Jugol, the old walled city, was listed as a World Heritage Site in 2006 by UNESCO in recognition of its cultural heritage. Because of Harar's long history of involvement during times of trade in the Arabian Peninsula, the Government of Ethiopia has made it a criminal offence to demolish or interfere with any historical sites or fixtures in the city. These include stone homes, museums and items discarded from war. According to UNESCO, it is "considered 'the fourth holiest city' of Islam" with 82 mosques, three of which date from the 10th century, and 102 shrines.
Yahyá Naṣrallāh's Fatḥ Madīnat Harar, an unpublished history of the city in the 13th century, records that the legendary saint Abadir Umar ar-Rida and several other religious leaders settled in the Harar plateau c. 1216 (612 AH). Harar was later made the new capital of the Adal Sultanate in 1520 by the Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad. The city saw a political decline during the ensuing Emirate of Harar, only regaining some significance in the Khedivate of Egypt period. During the Ethiopian Empire, the city decayed while maintaining a certain cultural prestige.
Harar has a population of over 151,977 people. Harar also forms the centre of the wider Harari Region which has a population of over 246,000 people.
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