Hamilton is an industrialised port city in the Canadian province of Ontario in the Golden Horseshoe at the west end of Lake Ontario. Hamilton, Ontario also forms part of the wider metropolitan area which includes Burlington and Grimsby. The city is 58 kilometres (36 mi) south-west of Toronto in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA).
Prior to European settlement, the land on which Hamilton stands was inhabited by the Neutral and Mississauga nations. Conceived by George Hamilton when he purchased the Durand farm shortly after the War of 1812, the town of Hamilton became the centre of a densely populated and industrialised region at the west end of Lake Ontario known as the Golden Horseshoe. The current boundaries of Hamilton were created through the amalgamation of the original city with other municipalities of the Regional Municipality of Hamilton–Wentworth.
Traditionally, the local economy has been led by the steel and heavy manufacturing industries. Within the last decade, there has been a shift towards the service sector, like health and sciences. Hamilton is home to the Royal Botanical Gardens, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, the Bruce Trail, McMaster University, Redeemer University College and Mohawk College. McMaster University is ranked 4th in Canada and 69th in the world by Times Higher Education Rankings 2021.
The most important economic activity in Ontario is manufacturing, and the Toronto–Hamilton region is the country's most highly industrialised area. The area from Oshawa, Ontario around the west end of Lake Ontario to Niagara Falls, with Hamilton at its centre, is known as the Golden Horseshoe.
With sixty percent of Canada's steel produced in Hamilton by Stelco and Dofasco, the city has become known as the Steel Capital of Canada. In 2014, US Steel Canada announced it would close its Hamilton operations.
A stand-alone subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal, the world's largest steel producer, Dofasco produces products for the automotive, construction, energy, manufacturing, pipe and tube, appliance, packaging, and steel distribution industries. It has approximately 7,300 employees at its Hamilton plant, and the four million tons of steel it produces each year is about 30% of Canada's flat-rolled sheet steel shipments. Dofasco was North America's most profitable steel producer in 1999, the most profitable in Canada in 2000, and a long-time member of the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index. Ordered by the U.S. Department of Justice to divest itself of the Canadian company, Arcelor Mittal has been allowed to retain Dofasco provided it sells several of its American assets.
Hamilton is a sister city with: Flint, Michigan • Fukuyama (Japan) • Ma'anshan (China) • Mangaluru (Karnataka, India) • Monterrey (Nuevo León, Mexico) • Racalmuto (Agrigento, Sicily, Italy) • Sarasota, Florida (U.S.) • Shawinigan, Quebec • Valle Peligna (Abruzzo, Italy).
Other city relationships: Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil)
Hamilton is ranked #112 by the Global Urban Competitiveness Report (GUCR) which evaluates and ranks world cities in the context of economic competitiveness. Hamilton is rated D+ by the Global Urban Competitiveness Report (GUCR) which evaluates and ranks world cities in the context of economic competitiveness. D+ cities are strong regional hub cities. Hamilton has a population of over 556,359 people. Hamilton also forms part of the wider Hamilton metropolitan area which has a population of over 747,545 people. Hamilton is the #325 hipster city in the world, with a hipster score of 2.4191 according to the Hipster Index which evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to the number of vegan eateries, coffee shops, tattoo studios, vintage boutiques, and record stores per 100,000 city residents.