Sudbury, officially Greater Sudbury, is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is the largest city in Northern Ontario. It is administratively a Unitary authority, and thus not part of any district, county, or regional municipality. The City of Greater Sudbury is separate from but entirely surrounded by Sudbury District. The Sudbury region was inhabited by the Ojibwe people of the Algonquin group for thousands of years prior to the founding of Sudbury following the discovery of nickel ore in 1883 during the construction of the transcontinental railway.
The population resides in an urban core and many smaller communities scattered around 330 lakes and among hills of rock blackened by historical smelting activity. Sudbury is the major retail, economic, health and educational centre for North-eastern Ontario. Sudbury is also home to a large Franco-Ontarian population that influences its arts and culture.
Sudbury's mining economy is dominated by Glencore Xstrata. Several other mining companies, including First Nickel and KGHM, also have mining operations in the Sudbury area. Mining employs 6,000 people in the city, and the mining supply and service sector employs a further 10,000. 80% of Greater Sudbury's labour force was employed in services with 20% remaining in manufacturing. Over 345 mining supply and service companies are located in Sudbury. This includes a number of public and private firms pursuing research and development in new mining technologies such as Mining Innovation Rehabilitation and Applied Research Corporation (MIRARCO), the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology (NORCAT), and the Centre for Excellence in Mining Innovation (CEMI).
Sudbury is a major centre of finance, business, tourism, health care, education, government, and science and technology research. Vale [Mining], Health Sciences North [Health services], Sudbury Tax Services Office [Federal government], City of Greater Sudbury [Municipal government], Laurentian University [Education], Rainbow District School Board [Education], Ontario Ministries and Agencies [Ontario government], Conseil scolaire catholique du Nouvel-Ontario [Education], Xstrata [Mining].
The downtown core includes Market Square, a farmer's and craft market; the Rainbow Centre Mall; several mixed-use office and loft developments in historic properties; and the McEwen School of Architecture. The area is host to cultural events such as Downtown Rotary Blues for Food, Sudbury's Largest Yard and Sidewalk Sale, Downtown Sudbury Ribfest and the Up Here art and music festival. New projects include Place des Arts, a performing and visual arts centre; the redesign and renovation of the central plaza at Tom Davies Square; and the creation of The Junction, a multi-use complex including the Art Gallery of Sudbury, the main branch of the Greater Sudbury Public Library, and a convention and performance theatre space. A large percentage of the city's retail service sector is found outside of the downtown core, in areas such as the Four Corners, the RioCan and Silver Hills power centres on the Kingsway, and the New Sudbury Centre, the largest shopping mall in Northern Ontario with 110 stores.
Sudbury has an emerging film and television industry, with a number of projects filming in the city. Development of an active film and television production industry in Northern Ontario is currently overseen by Music and Film in Motion, a non-profit organisation based in Sudbury. Sudbury is also home to the Science North Production Team, an award-winning producer of documentary films and multimedia presentations for museums. Independent filmmaker B. P. Paquette is based in Sudbury. Inner City Films, a production company owned by Sudbury native Robert Adetuyi, also has a production office in the city, as does Carte Blanche Films.
With the construction of the Laurentian University McEwen School of Architecture, as well as increasing development in the city, architecture has become a more increasingly important part of the economy in Sudbury.
Greater Sudbury has a population of over 161,531 people. Greater Sudbury also forms part of the Greater Sudbury metropolitan area which has a population of over 164,770 people. Greater Sudbury is the #336 hipster city in the world, with a hipster score of 2.3136 according to the Hipster Index which evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to the number of vegan eateries, coffee shops, tattoo studios, vintage boutiques, and record stores per 100,000 city residents.