Eindhoven is the fifth-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country. It is the largest city in the province of North Brabant. Eindhoven was originally located at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender. Neighbouring cities and towns include Son en Breugel, Nuenen, Geldrop-Mierlo, Helmond, Heeze-Leende, Waalre, Veldhoven, Eersel, Oirschot and Best. It is also part of The Brabantse Stedenrij combined metropolitan area. Eindhoven has grown from a little town in 1232 to one of the biggest cities in the Netherlands with around 230,000 inhabitants in 2020. Much of its growth is due to Philips, DAF Trucks and Brabantia.
During the 19th century, Eindhoven grew into an industrial town with factories for textile weaving, cigar manufacturing, match making and hat making. In 1891, brothers Gerard and Anton Philips founded the small light bulb factory that would grow into one of the largest electronics firms in the world. Philips' presence is probably the largest single contributing factor to the major growth of Eindhoven in the 20th century. It attracted and spun off many hi-tech companies, making Eindhoven a major technology and industrial hub. A full third of the total amount of money spent on research in the Netherlands was spent in or around Eindhoven. A quarter of the jobs in the region are in technology and ICT, with companies such as FEI Company (once Philips Electron Optics), NXP Semiconductors (formerly Philips Semiconductors), ASML, ALTEN, Simac, Neways Electronics and the aforementioned Philips and DAF.
Eindhoven has long been a centre of co-operation between research institutes and industry. This tradition started with Philips (the NatLab was a physical expression of this) and has since expanded to large co-operative networks. The Eindhoven University of Technology hosts an incubator for technology startups and the NatLab has developed into the High Tech Campus Eindhoven. Also, TNO has opened a branch on the university campus. This tradition has also fostered inter-industry co-operation in the region; one example of this is the announcement in September 2010 of a new research lab for high-grade packaging materials, a co-operation of IPS Packaging and Thales Cryognetics.
This co-operative tradition has also developed into a different direction than the traditional technology research done at the university. Starting in 2002, the university, the Catharina hospital, Philips Medical and the University of Maastricht joined forces and started joint research into biomedical science, technology and engineering. Within Eindhoven, this research has been concentrated in a new university faculty (BioMedical Technology or BMT). This development has also made Eindhoven a biomedical technology hub within the country and its (European) region.
Prime examples of industrial heritage in Eindhoven are the renovated Witte Dame ("White Lady") complex, a former Philips lamp factory; and the Admirant building (informally known as Bruine Heer or "Brown Gentleman" in reference to the Witte Dame across the street), the former Philips main offices. The Witte Dame currently houses the municipal library, the Design Academy and a selection of shops. The Admirant has been renovated into an Office building for small companies. Across the street from the Witte Dame and next to the Admirant is Philips' first light bulb factory (nicknamed Roze Baby, or "Pink Baby", in reference to its pink colour and much smaller size when compared to the "White Lady" and "Brown Gentleman"). The small building now houses the "Centrum Kunstlicht in de Kunst" (centre artificial light in art) and the "Philips Incandescent Lamp Factory of 1891" museum.
Eindhoven was ranked #796 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Eindhoven has a population of over 216,000 people. Eindhoven also forms part of the wider Eindhoven metropolitan area which has a population of over 356,000 people. Eindhoven is the #103 hipster city in the world, with a hipster score of 4.3918 according to the Hipster Index which evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to the number of vegan eateries, coffee shops, tattoo studios, vintage boutiques, and record stores per 100,000 city residents.