🇧🇩 Dhaka, formerly known as Dacca, is the capital and the largest city of Bangladesh, as well as the largest city in the Bengal region. Dhaka is the economic, political, and cultural centre of Bangladesh, and is one of the major cities in South Asia, the largest city in Eastern South Asia and among the Bay of Bengal countries; and one of the largest cities among OIC countries. As part of the Bengal plain, the city is bounded by the Buriganga River, Turag River, Dhaleshwari River and Shitalakshya River.
The area of Dhaka has been inhabited since the first millennium. The city rose to prominence in the 17th century as a provincial capital and commercial centre of the Mughal Empire. As the centre of the muslin trade in Bengal, it was one of the most prosperous cities in the world. The medieval city was named Jahangirabad in honour of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and hosted the seat of the Mughal Subahdar, Naib Nazims, Dhaka Nawabs, and Dewans. In the 17th and 18th centuries it was home to merchants from across Eurasia. It was the centre of a flourishing sea trade attracting European traders. The Mughals decorated the city with well laid out gardens, tombs, mosques, palaces and forts. Under British rule, the city saw the introduction of electricity, railways, cinemas, Western-style universities and colleges and a modern water supply. It became an important administrative and educational centre in British Raj, as the capital of Eastern Bengal and Assam province. After the end of British rule, the city became the administrative capital of East Pakistan. It was declared as the legislative capital of Pakistan in 1962. In 1971, after the Liberation War, it became the capital of an independent Bangladesh.
Dhaka is the financial, commercial and the entertainment capital of Bangladesh, and accounts for up to 35% of Bangladesh's economy. Since its establishment as a modern capital city the population, area, social and economic diversity of Dhaka have grown tremendously. The city is now one of the most densely industrialised regions in Bangladesh. Dhaka is a major beta-global city, as it hosts the headquarters of several international corporations. By the 21st century, it emerged as a megacity. The Dhaka Stock Exchange has over 750 listed companies. The city hosts over 50 diplomatic missions and the headquarters of BIMSTEC. The city's culture is known for its rickshaws, cuisine, art festivals and religious diversity. The old city is home to around 2000 buildings from the Mughal and British periods, including notable structures such as the Bara Katra and Choto Katra caravansaries.
Economy Dhaka is the financial, commercial and the entertainment capital of Bangladesh. It accounts for 35% of Bangladesh's economy. Major industrial areas are Tejgaon, Shyampur and Hazaribagh. The city has a growing middle class, driving the market for modern consumer and luxury goods. Shopping malls serve as vital elements in the city's economy. The city has historically attracted numerous migrant workers. Peddlers, small shops, rickshaw transport, roadside vendors and stalls employ a large segment of the population – rickshaw drivers alone number as many as 400,000. Half the workforce is employed in household and unorganised labour, while about 800,000 work in the textile industry.
Almost all large local conglomerates have their corporate offices located in Dhaka. Microcredit also began here and the offices of the Nobel Prize-winning Grameen Bank and BRAC (the largest non-governmental development organisation in the world) are based in Dhaka. Urban developments have sparked a widespread construction boom; new high-rise buildings and skyscrapers have changed the city's landscape. Growth has been especially strong in the finance, banking, manufacturing, telecommunications and service sectors, while tourism, hotels and restaurants continue as important elements of the Dhaka economy.
Dhaka has rising traffic congestion and inadequate infrastructure; the national government has recently implemented a policy for rapid urbanisation of surrounding areas and beyond by the introduction of a ten-year relief on income tax for new construction of facilities and buildings outside Dhaka.
Dhaka is rated Beta − by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) which evaluates and ranks the relationships between world cities in the context of globalisation. Beta level cities are cities that link moderate economic regions to the world economy.
Dhaka is rated D+ by the Global Urban Competitiveness Report (GUCR) which evaluates and ranks world cities in the context of economic competitiveness. D+ cities are strong regional hub cities. Dhaka was ranked #880 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Dhaka has a population of over 6,970,105 people. Dhaka also forms part of the Greater Dhaka metropolitan area which has a population of over 21,741,000 people. Dhaka is ranked #263 for startups with a score of 1.219.