Corpus Christi, Texas, United States

History | Civil rights | Geography | Annexation | Neighborhoods | Suburbs | Economy | Education : Universities | Culture | Attractions | Sport | Parks and recreation | Fishing | Wind sports | Skating | Birdwatching | Transport | Major highways | Water

🇺🇸 Corpus Christi is a coastal city in the South Texas region of the U.S. state of Texas and the county seat and largest city of Nueces County, it also extends into Aransas, Kleberg, and San Patricio Counties. It is 130 miles (210 km) south-east of San Antonio. Its political boundaries encompass Nueces Bay and Corpus Christi Bay. Its zoned boundaries include small land parcels or water inlets of three neighboring counties.

It is the eighth-most populous city in Texas. It is also the hub of the six-county Corpus Christi–Kingsville combined statistical area. The Port of Corpus Christi is the fifth-largest in the United States. The region is served by the Corpus Christi International Airport.

The city's name means body of Christ in Ecclesiastical Latin, in reference to the Christian sacrament of Holy Communion. The name was given to the settlement and surrounding bay by Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda in 1519, as he discovered the lush semitropical bay on the Western Christian feast day of Corpus Christi.

Corpus Christi is home to Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, one of two locations training primary student pilots and advanced multiengine pilots of the US Navy, US Marine Corps, and US Coast Guard.

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History Spaniard Alonso Alvarez de Pineda traveled in 1519 to this bay on the day of the religious Feast of Corpus Christi, so named the semitropical bay Corpus Christi.

Cabeza de Vaca may have passed through Corpus Christi in the 1500s, but the first European to study the Nueces River and Corpus Christi Bay was Joaquín de Orobio y Basterr in 1747. A few years later, José de Escandón organized a colony of about 50 families to settle the head of the bay, though this was short-lived.

In 1839, the first known permanent settlement of Corpus Christi was established by Colonel Henry Lawrence Kinney and William P. Aubrey as Kinney's Trading Post, or Kinney's Ranch. It was a small trading post that sold supplies to a Mexican revolutionary army camped about 25 mi (40 km) west. In July 1845, U.S. troops commanded by General Zachary Taylor set up camp there in preparation for war with Mexico, where they remained until March 1846. About a year later, the settlement was named Corpus Christi and was incorporated on September 9, 1852.

The Battle of Corpus Christi was fought between August 12 and August 18, 1862, during the American Civil War. United States Navy forces blockading Texas fought a small land and sea engagement with Confederate forces in and around Corpus Christi Bay and bombarded the city. Union forces defeated Confederate States Navy ships operating in the area, but were repulsed when they landed on the coast.

The Port of Corpus Christi was opened in 1926, and the Corpus Christi Naval Air Station was commissioned in 1941.

The 1919 Storm devastated the city, killing hundreds on September 14. Only three structures survived the storm on North Beach. To protect the city, the seawall was built. The city also suffered damage from Hurricane Celia in 1970 and Hurricane Allen in 1980, but little damage from Hurricane Ike in 2008. In 2017, the city was affected by Hurricane Harvey, then by Hurricane Hanna in 2020. Rough surf from Hurricane Laura caused one death and one injury at a beach in the city in late August 2020, just a month after Hanna.

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Civil rights • In November 1873, seven Mexican shepherds were lynched by a mob near the city. The crime was never solved. • In February 1929, the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) was founded in Corpus Christi. This organization was created to battle racial discrimination against Hispanic people in the United States. Since its founding, LULAC has grown and now has a national headquarters in Washington, DC. • In March 1949, the American GI Forum (AGIF) was founded in Corpus Christi. Currently, AGIF focuses on veteran's issues, education, and civil-rights issues. This organization was founded after concerns over the segregation of Mexican-American veterans from other veterans groups and the denial of medical services based on race by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. • Cisneros v. Corpus Christi Independent School District (1970) was the first case to extend the U.S. Supreme Court's Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas decision (1954) to Mexican Americans. It recognised them as a minority group that could be and was frequently discriminated against. Such segregation and discrimination were ruled unconstitutional. Judge Woodrow Seals found that the school board consciously fostered a system that perpetuated traditional segregation. This included a system that bused Anglo students to schools out of their neighborhoods, renovated old schools in black and Mexican-American neighborhoods rather than building new ones, assigned black and Hispanic teachers to segregated schools, and limited hiring of such teachers at other schools; the school board also lacked a majority-to-minority busing system.

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Geography Corpus Christi is situated on fluvial deposits that are of Holocene—Pleistocene age. Although no solidified rock occurs naturally at the surface, the Deweyville Formation of sand, silt, clay, and gravel, is locally indurated with calcium carbonate (caliche) deposits. In 2017, Hurricane Harvey's storm surge eroded down to shale bedrock at a depth around 40 ft in Packery Channel, an artificial pass cut between North Padre and Mustang Islands. This feature has become a gathering place for game fish, and can be identified from the surface by its whirlpool-like current. The large, shallow bay makes Corpus Christi an ideal feeding place for birds,which is one reason why Corpus Christi is known as the "Bird Capital" of North America. Consequently, the San Diego Audubon Society has designated Corpus Christi as "America's birdiest place".

Harbor Bridge - replacement under construction

According to the United States Census Bureau, Corpus Christi has a total area of 460.2 square miles (1,192.0 km²), of which 154.6 mi2 (400.5 km2, 33.60%) are land and 305.6 mi2 (791.5 km2, 66.40%) are covered by water.

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Annexation Since its founding, the city has annexed nearby lands and waters for growth and development purposes. The original area encompassed several city blocks in present-day downtown Corpus Christi with the majority of city expansion occurring in the 20th century.

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Neighborhoods • Annaville • Clarkwood • Bayside • Calallen • Flour Bluff • Gardendale • Hillcrest • North Beach • South Side • Mustang Island • North Padre Island.

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Suburbs • Portland • Robstown • Aransas Pass • Port Aransas • Sinton • Odem • Gregory • Mathis • Taft • Ingleside • Agua Dulce • Bishop.

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Economy The majority of the population is employed in the services, wholesale and retail trades, and government sectors. Corpus Christi has an unemployment rate of 4.5% as of July 2019.

The Port of Corpus Christi, which is the fifth-largest U.S. port and deepest inshore port on the Gulf of Mexico, handles mostly oil and agricultural products. Much of the local economy is driven by tourism and the oil and petrochemicals industry. In 2005, the port was ranked as the 47th-largest in the world by cargo tonnage.

Corpus Christi is home to Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, providing 6,200 civilian jobs to the local economy, making it the single largest employer in the city. Corpus Christi Army Depot, located on NAS Corpus Christi, is the largest helicopter repair facility in the world. Additionally located on NAS Corpus Christi is the United States Coast Guard Sector/Air Station Corpus Christi.

Corpus Christi is the original home of the headquarters of Whataburger, a fast-food restaurant operator and franchiser with 650 stores in 10 states and Mexico; the company relocated its headquarters to San Antonio in 2009. Other large employers include CHRISTUS Spohn Health System at 5,400 local employees, the Corpus Christi Independent School District with 5,178, H-E-B at 5,000, and Bay Ltd. at 2,100. Other companies based in Corpus Christi include Stripes Convenience Stores and AEP Texas.

Corpus Christi became the first major city to offer citywide free wi-fi in April 2005 to allow remote meter reading after a meter reader was attacked by a dog. In 2007, the network was purchased by Earthlink for $5.5 million, and stopped being a free service on May 31, 2007.

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Education: Universities Corpus Christi is home to several institutions of higher learning: Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Del Mar College, Saint Leo University-Corpus Christi, and numerous vocational schools, including Southern Careers Institute, South Texas Vo-Tech, Career Centers of Texas-Corpus Christi, and Vogue Cosmetology School. The city is also home to Stark College and Seminary (formerly known as the South Texas School of Christian Studies), located on Ward Island alongside Texas A&M-Corpus Christi.

Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi is a component of the Texas A&M University System. It was formerly known as Corpus Christi State University, Texas A&I University at Corpus Christi, and the University of Corpus Christi.

Saint Leo University-Corpus Christi Education Center is located at Corpus Christi's Naval Air Station.

Del Mar College is a local community college designated for the entire Corpus Christi city limits. It began in the 1940s at a location behind Wynn Seale Jr. High School. The main campus began with the administration building, which was constructed after World War II on Del Mar. The college grew to encompass a good portion of a residential addition called Southmoreland built from the Bohemian farmlands in the late 1930s. Del Mar now includes a west campus located in the area of Corpus Christi that once was Cliff Maus Airport. Del Mar College is expanding their footprint with the unveiling of their new Southside Campus near Oso Creek. The new Southern branch campus will serve the recent growing Southside area.

Southern Careers Institute offers career training at two Corpus Christi locations, primarily in the medical, business, and cosmetology fields.

In 2015, WalletHub ranked Corpus Christi near the bottom, 138 out of 150 cities in America, for its low educational level and low-income opportunities. To improve literacy levels in the city, a multiyear effort has been made to promote reading through annual literacy festivals. Started by First Lady Laura Bush and the Texas Book Festival, a series of book festivals is held each spring.

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Culture Various sections of Corpus Christi maintain distinct senses of identity and community from the city proper, especially the Calallen and Flour Bluff areas.

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Attractions The city is home to a number of popular destinations for both tourists and residents. The official visitor and tourism information organization is the Corpus Christi Convention and Visitors Bureau. Some of the most visited attractions are located on North Beach, where the Texas State Aquarium and the USS Lexington Museum on the Bay are located.

USS Lexington was also part of the set for the 2001 film Pearl Harbor. Corpus Christi's museum district is located near USS Lexington. Some attractions located in the museum district are the Museum of Asian Cultures, the Corpus Christi Museum of Science and History, the South Texas Institute for the Arts, and the Harbor Playhouse Theatre, one of the oldest continually operating community theatres in Texas. Heritage Park is also in the museum district, where a number of older restored houses can be found. The downtown area, of which the museum district is a part, is home to skyscrapers such as One Shoreline Plaza, company offices, various shops, a popular centre of marinas, and Mirador de la Flor. Downtown also is home of the Texas Surf Museum, which explores the history of surfing and focuses on surf culture along Texas' 367 mi (591 km) coast, as well as K Space Contemporary, a nonprofit art organization promoting and presenting local, regional, and national contemporary art.

Texas State Aquarium

The Corpus Christi Botanical Gardens and Nature Center, also located in the city, hosts gardening programs from time to time. On Oso Bay near the Pharaoh Valley subdivision, the Hans and Pat Suter Wildlife Refuge is known for seabird-watching. The nearby Pharaohs golf course also serves as a haven for coastal and migratory birds.

Directly east of Corpus Christi are Padre Island and Mustang Island, home to various municipal, state, and national parks, most notably the Padre Island National Seashore. The city is also near King Ranch, one of the world's largest ranches, upon which the movie Giant was based.

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Sport Corpus Christi has professional sports to offer residents and visitors. The city is home to the Corpus Christi IceRays of the North American Hockey League and the Corpus Christi Hooks are the AA minor-league baseball club for the Houston Astros, which play in the Texas League. The largest venue in Corpus Christi is the 18,000-capacity American football venue named Buccaneer Stadium.

Year-round NCAA Division I collegiate athletics may be found at Texas A&M-Corpus Christi as the Islanders compete in 14 men's and women's sports as a member of the Southland Conference.

Sailing races are held weekly off downtown's T-heads every Wednesday, where spectators watch vessels competing at sunset. Additionally, Corpus Christi is also home to the Corpus Christi Rugby Football Club, which is a member of the Texas Rugby Union, an affiliate of the Western Rugby Union and of the United States Rugby Football Union.

In 2017, the United Soccer League expanded to Corpus Christi, forming Corpus Christi FC. Corpus Christi FC plays in the Mid-South Division of the USL League Two.

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Parks and recreation The city's location beside Corpus Christi Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and Laguna Madre provides opportunities for water sports and nature tourism. Waterfowl hunting is available in the region for duck, geese, coot, and teal. White-winged dove and mourning dove are also hunted on private leases. The brushland inland from Corpus Christi is also ideal for hunting feral hogs and white-tailed deer.

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Fishing Fishing is a popular recreational activity in Corpus Christi, including fishing from various piers around Corpus Christi Bay, wade fishing in Oso Bay, and fishing from the Gulf of Mexico at Packery Channel or at Bob Hall Pier.

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Wind sports The city has one of the highest average wind speeds of coastal cities in North America. This, combined with the Bay Front area located along Ocean Drive, makes the city an important destination for wind sports such as kite boarding, wind surfing, kite flying, and sailing. In 1990, Corpus Christi hosted the Windsurfing World Championships. In 2018, Corpus Christi hosted the 2018 Youth Sailing World Championships.

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Skating The Corpus Christi Skate Park opened on February 17, 2007. It is located in Cole Park on the shoreline of the Corpus Christi Bay near downtown. The 12,000-square-foot (1,100 m²) concrete park includes a skating bowl and a street course with stairs, railings, and flat surfaces.

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Birdwatching Being a coastal city, Corpus Christi is a good spot for seabird watching. Popular spots include Blucher Park in downtown, the Hans and Pat Suter Wildlife Refuge along Oso Bay, Hazel Bazemore County Park along the Nueces River in Calallen, and the South Texas Botanic Garden and Nature Center along the Oso Creek.

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Transport Corpus Christi is served by Corpus Christi International Airport and Interstate 37. Interstate 69E/U.S. Highway 77 connects the city to Brownsville and Victoria. Texas State Highway 44 is a main thoroughfare that connects Corpus Christi to Laredo and the western part of South Texas by way of Interstate 69W/U.S. Highway 59, Interstate 35, and U.S. Highway 83. The inner-city public transportation is provided by Corpus Christi Regional Transportation Authority with its 28 bus routes. Corpus Christi once had a streetcar system functioning from 1910 to 1931 and a railway station (passenger service ended in 1965). Despite the convenience of a large harbor, the city does not have a passenger port. The city of Corpus Christi has a lower than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 8.5% of Corpus Christi households lacked a car, and decreased slightly to 7.9% in 2016. The national average was 8.7% in 2016. Corpus Christi averaged 1.77 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.

The city is accessed by two major bridges, the Harbor Bridge (US 181) and the John F. Kennedy Memorial Causeway (PR 22). Both bridges are maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation.

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Major highways • Interstate 37 • Interstate 69E; under construction and extension following US 77 • U.S. Highway 77 • U.S. Highway 181 • Texas State Highway 44 • Texas State Highway 286 (Crosstown Expressway) • Texas State Highway 358 (North Padre Island Drive and South Padre Island Drive) • Texas State Highway 35 • Texas State Highway 361 • Texas State Highway 357

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Water Drinking water for the city is supplied by three reservoirs, Lake Corpus Christi, the Choke Canyon Reservoir, and Lake Texana. Through an effective regional partnership with the Nueces River Authority and the Port of Corpus Christi Authority, a 101 mi (163 km) pipeline was built which transports water from Lake Texana to the city's O.N. Stevens Water Treatment Plant. It was named the Mary Rhodes Pipeline, after the late mayor. Phase two of the pipeline is underway to draw water from the Colorado River. All reservoirs are outside the city limits, but Lake Corpus Christi and Choke Canyon Reservoir are managed directly by the public utility of the City of Corpus Christi. To support future water needs, plans are being completed to build a desalinization plant.

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Corpus Christi, Texas, United States 
<b>Corpus Christi, Texas, United States</b>
Image: Terry Ross

Corpus Christi has a population of over 326,586 people. Corpus Christi also forms the centre of the wider Corpus Christi metropolitan area which has a population of over 442,600 people. Corpus Christi is the #277 hipster city in the world, with a hipster score of 2.8732 according to the Hipster Index which evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to the number of vegan eateries, coffee shops, tattoo studios, vintage boutiques, and record stores. Corpus Christi is ranked #658 for startups with a score of 0.235.

To set up a UBI Lab for Corpus Christi see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Corpus Christi has links with:

🇫🇷 Agen, France 🇹🇼 Keelung, Taiwan 🇪🇸 Toledo, Spain 🇲🇽 Veracruz, Mexico 🇯🇵 Yokosuka, Japan
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | Hipster Index | StartupBlink

Antipodal to Corpus Christi is: 82.596,-27.796

Locations Near: Corpus Christi -97.4041,27.7964

🇺🇸 Victoria -97.004,28.806 d: 118.9  

🇺🇸 Edinburg -98.161,26.299 d: 182.6  

🇺🇸 McAllen -98.229,26.203 d: 195.1  

🇺🇸 Pharr -98.187,26.175 d: 196.3  

🇺🇸 Mission -98.323,26.214 d: 198.1  

🇺🇸 Seguin -97.95,29.567 d: 203.9  

🇺🇸 Brownsville -97.496,25.906 d: 210.4  

🇲🇽 Reynosa -98.278,26.092 d: 208.3  

🇲🇽 Heroica Matamoros -97.5,25.867 d: 214.8  

🇲🇽 Matamoros -97.505,25.853 d: 216.3  

Antipodal to: Corpus Christi 82.596,-27.796

🇲🇺 Port Mathurin 63.417,-19.683 d: 17868.2  

🇲🇺 Mahébourg 57.7,-20.407 d: 17363.8  

🇲🇺 Centre de Flacq 57.718,-20.2 d: 17356.4  

🇲🇺 Rivière du Rempart 57.633,-20.05 d: 17341.7  

🇲🇺 Goodlands 57.633,-20.033 d: 17341  

🇲🇺 Curepipe 57.517,-20.317 d: 17342.3  

🇲🇺 Vacoas-Phoenix 57.493,-20.3 d: 17339.2  

🇲🇺 St Pierre 57.517,-20.217 d: 17337.9  

🇲🇺 Moka 57.496,-20.219 d: 17336  

🇲🇺 Quatre Bornes 57.479,-20.266 d: 17336.4  

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