Bucharest, Bucuresti General Municipality, Romania

History | Treaties | Geography | Economy | Transport : Public : Rail : Air : Road | Water | Culture | Landmarks | Visual arts | Performing arts | Music and nightlife | Cultural events and festivals | Traditional culture | Religion | Architecture | Historical architecture | Communist era architecture | Contemporary architecture | Education | Media | Healthcare | Sport

🇷🇴 Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. It is in the south-east of the country, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River.

In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic and cultural boom. It is one of the fastest-growing high-tech cities in Europe, according to the Financial Times, CBRE, TechCrunch, and others. UiPath, a global startup founded in Bucharest, has reached over $35 billion in valuation. Since 2019, Bucharest hosts the largest high tech summit in Southeast Europe (Romania Blockchain Summit).

In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as 'endangered' by the World Monuments Watch. In 2017, Bucharest was the European city with the highest growth of tourists who stay over night, according to the Mastercard Global Index of Urban Destinations. As for the past two consecutive years, 2018 and 2019, Bucharest ranked as the European destination with the highest potential for development according to the same study.

Bucharest is the fourth largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after Berlin, Madrid, and Rome, just ahead of Paris.

Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania. The city has a number of large convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional 'shopping arcades' and recreational areas.

The city proper is administratively known as the 'Municipality of Bucharest' (Municipiul București), and has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor.

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History Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania late in the 19th century. First mentioned as the 'Citadel of București' in 1459, it became the residence of the ruler of Wallachia, Voivode Vlad the Impaler.

The Old Princely Court (Curtea Veche) was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of Southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire.

Bucharest finally became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698 (starting with the reign of Constantin Brâncoveanu). The city was partly destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years

The Ottomans appointed Greek administrators (Phanariotes) to run the town (Ottoman Turkish: بكرش, romanized: Bukreş) from the 18th century. The 1821 Wallachian uprising initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest.

In 1813–14 the city was hit by Caragea's plague. the city was wrested from Ottoman influence and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg monarchy (1716, 1737, 1789) and Imperial Russia (three times between 1768 and 1806). It was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. Later, an Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure (remaining in the city until March 1857). On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings, destroying a third of the city.

In 1862, after Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I. During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased dramatically, and a new period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, and limited electrification were introduced. The Dâmbovița River was also massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to previously endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest. The Fortifications of Bucharest were built. The extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of 'Paris of the East' (Parisul Estului), with the Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées.

Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași (also called Jassy), in the Moldavia region. After World War I, Bucharest became the capital of Greater Romania. In the interwar years, Bucharest's urban development continued, with the city gaining an average of 30,000 new residents each year. Also, some of the city's main landmarks were built in this period, including Arcul de Triumf and Palatul Telefoanelor. However, the Great Depression in Romania took its toll on Bucharest's citizens, culminating in the Grivița Strike of 1933.

In January 1941, the city was the scene of the Legionnaires' rebellion and Bucharest pogrom. As the capital of an Axis country and a major transit point for Axis troops en route to the Eastern Front, Bucharest suffered heavy damage during World War II due to Allied bombings. On 23 August 1944, Bucharest was the site of the royal coup which brought Romania into the Allied camp. The city suffered a short period of Nazi Luftwaffe bombings, as well as a failed attempt by German troops to regain the city.

After the establishment of communism in Romania, the city continued growing. New districts were constructed, most of them dominated by tower blocks. During Nicolae Ceaușescu's leadership (1965–89), a part of the historic city was demolished and replaced by 'Socialist realism' style development: (1) the Centrul Civic (the Civic Centre) and (2) the Palace of the Parliament, for which an entire historic quarter was razed to make way for Ceaușescu's megalomaniac plans. On 4 March 1977, an earthquake centred in Vrancea, about 135 km (83.89 mi) away, claimed 1,500 lives and caused further damage to the historic centre.

The Romanian Revolution of 1989 began with massive anti-Ceaușescu protests in Timișoara in December 1989 and continued in Bucharest, leading to the overthrow of the Communist regime. Dissatisfied with the postrevolutionary leadership of the National Salvation Front, some student leagues and opposition groups organised anti-Communist rallies in early 1990, which caused the political change.

Since 2000, the city has been continuously modernised. Residential and commercial developments are underway, particularly in the northern districts; Bucharest's old historic centre has undergone restoration since the mid-2000s.

In 2015, 64 people were killed in the Colectiv nightclub fire. Later the Romanian capital saw the 2017–2019 Romanian protests against the judicial reforms, with a 2018 protest ending with 450 people injured.

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Treaties The following treaties were signed in the city: • Treaty of Bucharest (1812), between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire ending the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812) • Treaty of Bucharest (1886), between Serbia and Bulgaria ending the Serbian–Bulgarian War • Treaty of Bucharest (1913), between Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece ending of the Second Balkan War • Treaty of Bucharest (1916), a treaty of alliance between Romania and the Entente Powers • Treaty of Bucharest (1918), between Romania and the Central Powers.

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Geography The city is situated on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, which flows into the Argeș River, a tributary of the Danube. Several lakes – the most important of which are Lake Herăstrău, Lake Floreasca, Lake Tei, and Lake Colentina – stretch across the northern parts of the city, along the Colentina River, a tributary of the Dâmbovița. In addition, in the centre of the capital is a small artificial lake – Lake Cișmigiu – surrounded by the Cișmigiu Gardens. These gardens have a rich history, having been frequented by poets and writers. Opened in 1847 and based on the plans of German architect Carl F.W. Meyer, the gardens are the main recreational facility in the city centre.

Bucharest parks and gardens also include Herăstrău Park, Tineretului Park and the Botanical Garden. Herăstrău Park is located in the northern part of the city, around Lake Herăstrău, and includes the site the Village Museum. Grigore Antipa Museum is also near in the Victoriei Square. One of its best known locations are Hard Rock Cafe Bucharest and Berăria H (one of the largest beer halls in Europe). Tineretului Park was created in 1965 and designed as the main recreational space for southern Bucharest. It contains a Mini Town which is a play area for kids. The Botanical Garden, located in the Cotroceni neighbourhood a bit west of the city centre, is the largest of its kind in Romania and contains over 10,000 species of plants (many of them exotic); it originated as the pleasure park of the royal family. Besides them, there are many other smaller parks that should be visited, some of them being still large. Alexandru Ioan Cuza Park, Kiseleff Park, Carol Park, Izvor Park, Grădina Icoanei, Circului Park and Moghioroș Park are a few of them. Other large parks in Bucharest are: National Park, Tei Park, Eroilor Park and Crângași Park with Morii Lake.

Lake Văcărești is located in the southern part of the city. Over 190 hectares, including 90 hectares of water, host 97 species of birds, half of them protected by law, and at least seven species of mammals. The lake is surrounded by buildings of flats and is an odd result of human intervention and nature taking its course. The area was a small village that Ceaușescu attempted to convert into a lake. After demolishing the houses and building the concrete basin, the plan was abandoned following the 1989 revolution. For nearly two decades, the area shifted from being an abandoned green space where children could play and sunbathe, to being contested by previous owners of the land there, to being closed for redevelopment into a sports centre. The redevelopment deal failed, and over the following years, the green space grew into a unique habitat. In May 2016, the lake was declared a national park, the Văcărești Nature Park. Dubbed the 'Delta of Bucharest', the area is protected.

Bucharest is situated in the centre of the Romanian Plain, in an area once covered by the Vlăsiei Forest, which after it was cleared, gave way for a fertile flatland. As with many cities, Bucharest is traditionally considered to be built upon seven hills, similar to the seven hills of Rome. Bucharest's seven hills are: Mihai Vodă, Dealul Mitropoliei, Radu Vodă, Cotroceni, Dealul Spirii, Văcărești, and Sfântu Gheorghe Nou.

The city has an area of 226 km² (87 sq mi). The altitude varies from 55.8 m (183.1 ft) at the Dâmbovița bridge in Cățelu, south-eastern Bucharest and 91.5 m (300.2 ft) at the Militari church. The city has a roughly round shape, with the centre situated in the cross-way of the main north–south/east-west axes at University Square. The milestone for Romania's Kilometre Zero is placed just south of University Square in front of the New St. George Church (Sfântul Gheorghe Nou) at St. George Square (Piața Sfântul Gheorghe). Bucharest's radius, from University Square to the city limits in all directions, varies from 10 to 12 km (6 to 7 mi).

Until recently, the regions surrounding Bucharest were largely rural, but after 1989, suburbs started to be built around Bucharest, in the surrounding Ilfov County. Further urban consolidation is expected to take place in the late 2010s, when the 'Bucharest Metropolitan Area' plan will become operational, incorporating additional communes and cities from the Ilfov and other neighbouring counties.

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Economy Bucharest is the centre of the Romanian economy and industry, accounting for around 24% (2017) of the country's GDP and about one-quarter of its industrial production, while being inhabited by 9% of the country's population. Almost one-third of national taxes is paid by Bucharest's citizens and companies. The living standard in the Bucharest-Ilfov region was 145% of the EU average in 2017, according to GDP per capita at the purchasing power parity standard (adjusted to the national price level).

Bucharest area surpassed, on comparable terms, European metropolitan areas such as Budapest (139%), Madrid (125%), Berlin (118%), Rome (110%), Lisbon (102%), or Sofia (79%), and more than twice the Romanian average. After relative stagnation in the 1990s, the city's strong economic growth has revitalised infrastructure and led to the development of shopping malls, residential estates, and high-rise office buildings. In January 2013, Bucharest had an unemployment rate of 2.1%, significantly lower than the national unemployment rate of 5.8%.

Bucharest's economy is centred on industry and services, with services particularly growing in importance in the last 10 years. The headquarters of 186,000 firms, including nearly all large Romanian companies, are located in Bucharest. An important source of growth since 2000 has been the city's rapidly expanding property and construction sector. Bucharest is also Romania's largest centre for information technology and communications and is home to several software companies operating offshore delivery centres. Romania's largest stock exchange, the Bucharest Stock Exchange, which was merged in December 2005 with the Bucharest-based electronic stock exchange Rasdaq, plays a major role in the city's economy.

International supermarket chains such as Kaufland, Lidl, Metro, Selgros, Penny Market, Carrefour, Auchan, Cora, Profi, and Mega Image are all operating in Bucharest. The city is undergoing a retail boom. Bucharest hosts luxury brands such as Armani, Versace, Ralph Lauren, Dior, Prada, Chanel, Hermes, Louis Vuitton, and Gucci. Malls and large shopping centres have been built since the late 1990s, such as Băneasa Shopping City, AFI Palace Cotroceni, Mega Mall, București Mall, ParkLake Shopping Centre, Sun Plaza, Promenada Mall and longest Unirea Shopping Centre. Bucharest has over 20 malls as of 2019.

The corporations Amazon, Microsoft, Oracle Corporation, or IBM are all present in the Romanian capital. The top ten is also dominated by companies operating in automotive, oil & gas (such as Petrom), as well as companies in telecommunication and FMCG.

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Transport Bucharest is crossed by two major international routes: Pan-European transport corridor IV and IX.

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Transport: Public Bucharest's public transport system is the largest in Romania and one of the largest in Europe. It is made up of the Bucharest Metro, run by Metrorex, as well as a surface transport system run by STB (Societatea de Transport București, previously known as the RATB), which consists of buses, trams, trolleybuses, and light rail. In addition, a private minibus system operates there. As of 2007, a limit of 10,000 taxicab licences was imposed.

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Transport: Rail It is the hub of Romania's national railway network, run by Căile Ferate Române. The main railway station is Gara de Nord ('North Station'), which provides connections to all major cities in Romania, as well as international destinations: Belgrade, Sofia, Varna, Chișinău, Kyiv, Chernivtsi, Lviv, Thessaloniki, Vienna, Budapest, Istanbul, Moscow, etc.

The city has five other railway stations run by CFR, of which the most important are Basarab (adjacent to North Station), Obor, Băneasa, and Progresul. These are in the process of being integrated into a commuter railway serving Bucharest and the surrounding Ilfov County. Seven main lines radiate out of Bucharest.

The oldest station in Bucharest is Filaret. It was inaugurated in 1869, and in 1960, the communist government turned it in a bus terminal.

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Transport: Air • Henri Coandă International Airport (IATA: OTP, ICAO: LROP), located 16.5 km (10.3 mi) north of the Bucharest city centre, in the town of Otopeni, Ilfov. It is the busiest airport in Romania, in terms of passenger traffic: 12,807,032 in 2017. • Aurel Vlaicu International Airport (IATA: BBU, ICAO: LRBS) is Bucharest's business and VIP airport. It is situated only 8 km (5.0 mi) north of the Bucharest city centre, within city limits.

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Transport: Road Bucharest is a major intersection of Romania's national road network. A few of the busiest national roads and motorways link the city to all of Romania's major cities, as well as to neighbouring countries such as Hungary, Bulgaria and Ukraine. The A1 to Pitești, and from Sibiu to the Hungarian border, the A2 Sun Motorway to the Dobrogea region and Constanța, and the A3 to Ploiești all start from Bucharest.

A series of high-capacity boulevards, which generally radiate out from the city centre to the outskirts, provides a framework for the municipal road system. The main axes, which run north–south, east–west and northwest–southeast, as well as one internal and one external ring road, support the bulk of the traffic.

The city's roads are usually very crowded during rush hours, due to an increase in car ownership in recent years. In 2013, the number of cars registered in Bucharest amounted to 1,125,591. This results in wear and potholes appearing on busy roads, particularly secondary roads, this being identified as one of Bucharest's main infrastructural problems. A comprehensive effort on behalf of the City Hall to boost road infrastructure was made, and according to the general development plan, 2,000 roads have been repaired by 2008. The huge number of cars registered in the city forced the Romanian Auto Registry to switch to 3-digit numbers on registration plates in 2010.

On 17 June 2011, the Basarab Overpass was inaugurated and opened to traffic, thus completing the inner city traffic ring. The overpass took five years to build and is the longest cable-stayed bridge in Romania and the widest such bridge in Europe; upon completion, traffic on the Grant Bridge and in the Gara de Nord area became noticeably more fluid.

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Water Although it is situated on the banks of a river, Bucharest has never functioned as a port city. Other Romanian cities such as Constanța and Galați serve as the country's main ports. The unfinished Danube-Bucharest Canal, which is 73 km (45 mi) long and around 70% completed, could link Bucharest to the Danube River, and via the Danube-Black Sea Canal, to the Black Sea. Works on the canal were suspended in 1989, but proposals have been made to resume construction as part of the European Strategy for the Danube Region.

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Culture Bucharest has a growing cultural scene, in fields including the visual arts, performing arts, and nightlife. Unlike other parts of Romania, such as the Black Sea coast or Transylvania, Bucharest's cultural scene has no defined style, and instead incorporates elements of Romanian and international culture.

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Landmarks Bucharest has landmark buildings and monuments. Perhaps the most prominent of these is the Palace of the Parliament, built in the 1980s during the rule of Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu. The largest Parliament building in the world, the palace houses the Romanian Parliament (the Chamber of Deputies, and the Senate), as well as the National Museum of Contemporary Art. The building boasts one of the largest convention centres in the world.

Another landmark in Bucharest is Arcul de Triumf ("The Triumphal Arch"), built in its current form in 1935 and modelled after the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. A newer landmark of the city is the Memorial of Rebirth, a stylised marble pillar unveiled in 2005 to commemorate the victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism. The abstract monument sparked controversy when it was unveiled, being dubbed with names such as 'the olive on the toothpick' (măslina-n scobitoare), as many argued that it does not fit in its surroundings and believed that its choice was political.

The Romanian Athenaeum building is considered a symbol of Romanian culture and since 2007 has been on the list of the Label of European Heritage sites. It was built between 1886 and 1888 by the architect Paul Louis Albert Galeron, through public funding.

InterContinental Bucharest is a high-rise five-star hotel near University Square and is also a landmark of the city. The building is designed so that each room has a unique panorama of the city.

House of the Spark (Casa Scânteii) is a replica of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. This edifice, built in the characteristic style of the large-scale Soviet projects, was intended to be representative of the new political regime and to assert the superiority of the Communist doctrine. Construction started in 1952 and was completed in 1957, a few years after Stalin's death in 1953. Popularly known as Casa Scânteii ('House of the Spark') after the name of the official gazette of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, Scânteia, it was made for the purpose of bringing together under one roof all of Bucharest's official press and publishing houses. It is the only building in Bucharest featuring the Hammer and Sickle, the Red Star and other communist insignia carved into medallions adorning the façade.

Other cultural venues include the National Museum of Art of Romania, Grigore Antipa National Museum of Natural History, Museum of the Romanian Peasant, National History Museum and the Military Museum.

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Visual arts In terms of visual arts, the city has museums featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international works. The National Museum of Art of Romania is perhaps the best-known of Bucharest museums. It is located in the royal palace and features collections of medieval and modern Romanian art, including works by sculptor Constantin Brâncuși, as well as an international collection assembled by the Romanian royal family.

Other, smaller, museums contain specialised collections. The Zambaccian Museum, which is situated in the former home of art collector Krikor H. Zambaccian, contains works by well-known Romanian artists and international artists such as Paul Cézanne, Eugène Delacroix, Henri Matisse, Camille Pissarro, and Pablo Picasso.

The Gheorghe Tattarescu Museum contains portraits of Romanian revolutionaries in exile such as Gheorghe Magheru, ștefan Golescu, and Nicolae Bălcescu, and allegorical compositions with revolutionary (Romania's rebirth, 1849) and patriotic (The Principalities' Unification, 1857) themes. Another impressive art collection gathering important Romanian painters, can be found at the Ligia and Pompiliu Macovei residence, which is open to visitors as it is now part of the Bucharest Museum patrimony.

The Theodor Pallady Museum is situated in one of the oldest surviving merchant houses in Bucharest and includes works by Romanian painter Theodor Pallady, as well as European and oriental furniture pieces. The Museum of Art Collections contains the collections of Romanian art aficionados, including Krikor Zambaccian and Theodor Pallady.

Despite the classical art galleries and museums in the city, a contemporary arts scene also exists. The National Museum of Contemporary Art (MNAC), situated in a wing of the Palace of the Parliament, was opened in 2004 and contains Romanian and international contemporary art. The MNAC also manages the Kalinderu MediaLab, which caters to multimedia and experimental art. Private art galleries are scattered throughout the city centre.

The palace of the National Bank of Romania houses the national numismatic collection. Exhibits include banknotes, coins, documents, photographs, maps, silver and gold bullion bars, bullion coins, and dies and moulds. The building was constructed between 1884 and 1890. The thesaurus room contains notable marble decorations.

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Performing arts Performing arts are some of the strongest cultural elements of Bucharest. The most famous symphony orchestra is National Radio Orchestra of Romania. One of the most prominent buildings is the neoclassical Romanian Athenaeum, which was founded in 1852, and hosts classical music concerts, the George Enescu Festival, and is home to the George Enescu Philharmonic Orchestra.

Bucharest is home to the Romanian National Opera and the I.L. Caragiale National Theatre. Another well-known theatre in Bucharest is the State Jewish Theatre, which features plays starring world-renowned Romanian-Jewish actress Maia Morgenstern. Smaller theatres throughout the city cater to specific genres, such as the Comedy Theatre, the Nottara Theatre, the Bulandra Theatre, the Odeon Theatre, and the revue theatre of Constantin Tănase.

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Music and nightlife Bucharest is home to Romania's largest recording labels, and is often the residence of Romanian musicians. Romanian rock bands of the 1970s and 1980s, such as Iris and Holograf, continue to be popular, particularly with the middle-aged, while since the beginning of the 1990s, the hip hop/rap scene has developed. Hip-hop bands and artists from Bucharest such as B.U.G. Mafia, Paraziții, and La Familia enjoy national and international recognition.

The pop-rock band Taxi have been gaining international respect, as has Spitalul de Urgență's raucous updating of traditional Romanian music. While many neighbourhood discos play manele, an Oriental- and Roma-influenced genre of music that is particularly popular in Bucharest's working-class districts, the city has a rich jazz and blues scene, and to an even larger extent, house music/trance and heavy metal/punk scenes. Bucharest's jazz profile has especially risen since 2002, with the presence of two venues, Green Hours and Art Jazz, as well as an American presence alongside established Romanians.

With no central nightlife strip, entertainment venues are dispersed throughout the city, with clusters in Lipscani and Regie.

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Cultural events and festivals A number of cultural festivals are held in Bucharest throughout the year, but most festivals take place in June, July, and August. The National Opera organises the International Opera Festival every year in May and June, which includes ensembles and orchestras from all over the world.

The Romanian Athaeneum Society hosts the George Enescu Festival at locations throughout the city in September every two years (odd years). The Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Village Museum organise events throughout the year, showcasing Romanian folk arts and crafts.

In the 2000s, due to the growing prominence of the Chinese community in Bucharest, Chinese cultural events took place. The first officially organised Chinese festival was the Chinese New Year's Eve Festival of February 2005, which took place in Nichita Stănescu Park and was organised by the Bucharest City Hall.

In 2005, Bucharest was the first city in Southeastern Europe to host the international CowParade, which resulted in dozens of decorated cow sculptures being placed across the city.

In 2004, Bucharest imposed in the circle of important festivals in Eastern Europe with the Bucharest International Film Festival, an event widely acknowledged in Europe, having as guests of honour famous names from the world cinema: Andrei Konchalovsky, Danis Tanović, Nikita Mikhalkov, Rutger Hauer, Jerzy Skolimowski, Jan Harlan, Radu Mihăileanu, and many others.

Since 2005, Bucharest has its own contemporary art biennale, the Bucharest Biennale.

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Traditional culture Traditional Romanian culture continues to have a major influence in arts such as theatre, film, and music. Bucharest has two internationally renowned ethnographic museums, the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the open-air Dimitrie Gusti National Village Museum, in King Michael I Park. It contains 272 authentic buildings and peasant farms from all over Romania.

The Museum of the Romanian Peasant was declared the European Museum of the Year in 1996. Patronised by the Ministry of Culture, the museum preserves and exhibits numerous collections of objects and monuments of material and spiritual culture. The Museum of the Romanian Peasant holds one of the richest collections of peasant objects in Romania, its heritage being nearly 90,000 pieces, those being divided into several collections: ceramics, costumes, textiles, wooden objects, religious objects, customs, etc.

The Museum of Romanian History is another important museum in Bucharest, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian history and culture from the prehistoric times, Dacian era, medieval times, and the modern era.

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Religion Bucharest is the seat of the Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church, one of the Eastern Orthodox churches in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, and also of its subdivisions, the Metropolis of Muntenia and Dobrudja and the Archbishopric of Bucharest. Orthodox believers consider Demetrius of Basarabov to be the patron saint of the city.

The city is a centre for other Christian organizations in Romania, including the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bucharest, established in 1883, and the Romanian Greek-Catholic Eparchy of Saint Basil the Great, founded in 2014.

Bucharest also hosts six synagogues, including the Choral Temple of Bucharest, the Great Synagogue of Bucharest and the Holy Union Temple. The latter was converted into the Museum of the History of the Romanian Jewish Community, while the Great Synagogue and the Choral Temple are both active and hold regular services.

A mosque with a capacity for 2,000 people was in the planning stages at 22–30 Expoziției Boulevard. The project was later abandoned. However, there are several smaller Sunni and Shia mosques active in Bucharest.

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Architecture The city centre is a mixture of medieval, neoclassical, Art Deco, and Art Nouveau buildings, as well as 'neo-Romanian' buildings dating from the beginning of the 20th century and a collection of modern buildings from the 1920s and 1930s. The mostly utilitarian Communist-era architecture dominates most southern boroughs. Recently built contemporary structures such as skyscrapers and office buildings complete the landscape.

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Historical architecture Of the city's medieval architecture, most of what survived into modern times was destroyed by communist systematization, fire, and military incursions. Some medieval and renaissance edifices remain, the most notable are in the Lipscani area. This precinct contains notable buildings such as Manuc's Inn (Hanul lui Manuc) and the ruins of the Old Court (Curtea Veche); during the late Middle Ages, this area was the heart of commerce in Bucharest. From the 1970s onwards, the area went through urban decline, and many historical buildings fell into disrepair. In 2005, the Lipscani area was restored.

To execute a massive redevelopment project during the rule of Nicolae Ceaușescu, the government conducted extensive demolition of churches and many other historic structures in Romania. According to Alexandru Budișteanu, former chief architect of Bucharest, "The sight of a church bothered Ceaușescu. It didn't matter if they demolished or moved it, as long as it was no longer in sight". Nevertheless, a project organised by Romanian engineer Eugeniu Iordăchescu was able to move many historic structures to less-prominent sites and save them.

The city centre has retained architecture from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly the interwar period, which is often seen as the 'golden age' of Bucharest architecture. During this time, the city grew in size and wealth, therefore seeking to emulate other large European capitals such as Paris. Much of the architecture of the time belongs to a Modern (rationalist) Architecture current, led by Horia Creangă and Marcel Iancu.

In Romania, the tendencies of innovation in the architectural language met the need of valorisation and affirmation of the national cultural identity. The Art Nouveau movement found expression through new architectural style initiated by Ion Mincu and taken over by other prestigious architects who capitalised important references of Romanian laic and medieval ecclesiastical architecture (for example the Mogoșoaia Palace, the Stavropoleos Church or the disappeared church of Văcărești Monastery) and Romanian folk motifs. The Romanian Revival architecture, which was born as the result of the attempts of finding a specific Romanian architectural style, is exemplified though buildings such as Nicolae Minovici Folk Art Museum and the Romanian Peasant Museum.

Another style of the 1930s is the Moorish-Florentine or Mediterranean Picturesque, which eclectically uses Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance elements in civic architecture, with a Mediterranean vibe, giving rise to Mediterranean Revival architecture.

Some buildings from the interwar era have a modernist brutalist look, such as the Tehnoimport Building, which was built in 1935, and may be mistaken as communist architecture. Modernist styles during the interwar period include Art Deco, Stripped Classicism, Bauhaus and Rationalism.

Two buildings from this time are the Crețulescu Palace, housing cultural institutions including UNESCO's European Centre for Higher Education, and the Cotroceni Palace, the residence of the Romanian President. Many large-scale constructions such as the Gara de Nord, the busiest railway station in the city, National Bank of Romania's headquarters, and the Telephones Company Building date from these times. In the 2000s, some historic buildings in the city centre underwent restoration. In some residential areas of the city, particularly in high-income central and northern districts, turn-of-the-20th-century villas were mostly restored beginning in the late 1990s.

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Communist era architecture A major part of Bucharest's architecture is made up of buildings constructed during the Communist era replacing the historical architecture with high-density apartment blocks – significant portions of the historic centre of Bucharest were demolished to construct one of the largest buildings in the world, the Palace of the Parliament (then officially called the House of the Republic). In Nicolae Ceaușescu's project of systematization, new buildings were built in previously historical areas, which were razed and then built upon.

Communist architecture broadly includes three stages: architecture that was built in the early years of communism, in the late 1940s and 1950s, which followed the Soviet Stalinist trend of Socialist Realism, an example being the House of the Free Press (which was named Casa Scînteii during communism); postwar Modernism in the 1960s and the 1970s; and the systematization program of the late 1970s and 1980s, which included mass demolitions of historical buildings and their replacement with North Korean influenced buildings after Nicolae Ceaușescu visited East Asia in 1971, and was impressed by its Juche ideology.

The Communist regime installed after World War II took control over all aspects of life, including architecture, dictating a uniform bureaucratic vision of urbanism and architectural design. Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, who was premier of the Socialist Republic of Romania from 1947 until 1965, began the country's policies of industrialization, with infrastructure development for heavy industry, and construction for mass resettlement to new industrial and agricultural centres away from Bucharest and other principal cities. The architecture from this period is more or less easy to spot, by its use of Neoclassical elements and proportions, but in a simplified way. There are also some small 3-4 floors "Russian blocks" from this era, some of them built of red bricks.

Communist-era architecture from the 1960s and 1970s can be found especially in Bucharest's residential districts, mainly in blocuri, which are high-density apartment blocks that house the majority of the city's population. Initially, these apartment blocks started to be constructed in the 1960s, on relatively empty areas and fields (good examples include Pajura, Drumul Taberei, Berceni and Titan), however with the 1970s, they mostly targeted peripheral neighbourhoods such as Colentina, Pantelimon, Militari and Rahova. Construction of these apartment blocks were also often randomised, for instance some small streets were demolished and later widened with the blocks being built next to them, but other neighbouring streets were left intact (like in the example of Calea Moșilor from 1978 to 1982), or built in various patterns such as the Piața Iancului-Lizeanu apartment buildings from 1962 to 1963.

The last years of communism were marked by major urban redevelopment schemes which changed dramatically the face of many cities, including Bucharest. One of the most singular examples of late stage communist architecture of the 1980s is Centrul Civic, a development that replaced a major part of Bucharest's historic city centre with giant utilitarian buildings, mainly with marble or travertine façades, inspired by North Korean architecture. The mass demolitions that occurred in the 1980s, under which an overall area of eight square km of the historic centre of Bucharest were levelled, including monasteries, churches, synagogues, a hospital, and a noted Art Deco sports stadium, changed drastically the appearance of the city.

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Contemporary architecture Since the fall of communism in 1989, several communist-era buildings have been refurbished, modernised, and used for other purposes. Perhaps the best example of this is the conversion of obsolete retail complexes into shopping malls and commercial centres. These giant, circular halls, which were unofficially called hunger circuses due to the food shortages experienced in the 1980s, were constructed during the Ceaușescu era to act as produce markets and refectories, although most were left unfinished at the time of the revolution.

Modern shopping malls such as the Unirea Shopping Centre, Bucharest Mall, Plaza Romania, and City Mall emerged on pre-existent structures of former hunger circuses. Another example is the conversion of a large utilitarian construction in Centrul Civic into a Marriott Hotel. This process was accelerated after 2000, when the city underwent a property boom, and many communist-era buildings in the city centre became prime real estate due to their location. Many communist-era apartment blocks have also been refurbished to improve urban appearance.

The newest contribution to Bucharest's architecture took place after the fall of communism, particularly after 2000, when the city went through a period of urban renewal – and architectural revitalization – on the back of Romania's economic growth. Buildings from this time are mostly made of glass and steel, and often have more than 10 stories. Examples include shopping malls (particularly the Bucharest Mall, a conversion and extension of an abandoned building), office buildings, bank headquarters, etc.

During the 21st century, several high rise office buildings were built, particularly in the northern and eastern parts of the city. Additionally, a trend to add modern wings and façades to historic buildings has occurred, the most prominent example of which is the Bucharest Architects' Association Building, which is a modern glass-and-steel construction built inside a historic stone façade. In 2013, the Bucharest skyline enriched with a 137-m-high office building (SkyTower of Floreasca City Centre), the tallest building in Romania. Examples of modern skyscrapers built in the 21st century include Bucharest Tower Centre, Euro Tower, Nusco Tower, Cathedral Plaza, City Gate Towers, Rin Grand Hotel, Premium Plaza, Bucharest Corporate Centre, Millennium Business Centre, PGV Tower, Charles de Gaulle Plaza, Business Development Centre Bucharest, BRD Tower, and Bucharest Financial Plaza. Despite this vertical development, Romanian architects avoid designing very tall buildings due to vulnerability to earthquakes.

Aside from buildings used for business and institutions, residential developments have also been built, many of which consist of high-rise office buildings and suburban residential communities. An example of a new high rise residential complex is Asmita Gardens. These developments are increasingly prominent in northern Bucharest, which is less densely populated and is home to middle- and upper-class Bucharesters due to the process of gentrification.

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Education Overall, 159 faculties are in 34 universities. Sixteen public universities are in Bucharest, the largest of which are the University of Bucharest, the Politehnica University of Bucharest, the Bucharest University of Economic Studies, the Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Technical University of Civil Engineering, the National University of Political Studies and Public Administration, and the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest.

These are supplemented by nineteen private universities, such as the Romanian-American University. Private universities, however, have a mixed reputation due to irregularities.

In the 2020 QS World University Rankings, from Bucharest, only the University of Bucharest was included in the top universities of the world. The Politehnica University disappeared from the ranking. Also, in recent years, the city has had increasing numbers of foreign students enrolling in its universities.

The first modern educational institution was the Princely Academy from Bucharest, founded in 1694 and divided in 1864 to form the present-day University of Bucharest and the Saint Sava National College, both of which are among the most prestigious of their kind in Romania.

Over 450 public primary and secondary schools are in the city, all of which are administered by the Bucharest Municipal Schooling Inspectorate. Each sector also has its own Schooling Inspectorate, subordinated to the municipal one.

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Media The city is well-served by a modern landline and mobile network. Offices of Poșta Română, the national postal operator, are spread throughout the city, with the central post office (Romanian: Oficiul Poștal București 1) located at 12 Matei Millo Street. Public telephones are located in many places and are operated by Telekom Romania, a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom and successor of the former monopoly Romtelecom.

Bucharest is the headquarters of most national television networks and national newspapers, radio stations and online news websites. The largest daily newspapers in Bucharest include Evenimentul Zilei, Jurnalul Național, Cotidianul, România Liberă, and Adevărul, while the biggest news websites are HotNews (with English and Spanish versions), Ziare.com, and Gândul. During the rush hours, tabloid newspapers Click!, Libertatea, and Cancan are popular for commuters.

Several newspapers and media publications are based in House of the Free Press (Casa Presei Libere), a landmark of northern Bucharest, originally named Casa Scânteii after the Communist Romania-era official newspaper Scînteia. The House of the Free Press is not the only Bucharest landmark that grew out of the media and communications industry. Palatul Telefoanelor ("The Telephone Palace") was the first major modernist building on Calea Victoriei in the city's centre, and the massive, unfinished communist-era Casa Radio looms over a park a block away from the Opera.

English-language newspapers became available in the early 1930s and reappeared in the 1990s. The two daily English-language newspapers are the Bucharest Daily News and Nine O' Clock; several magazines and publications in other languages are available, such as the Hungarian-language daily Új Magyar Szó.

Observator Cultural covers the city's arts, and the free weekly magazines Șapte Seri ("Seven Evenings") and B24FUN, list entertainment events. The city is home to the intellectual journal Dilema veche and the satire magazine Academia Cațavencu.

Visit Bucharest Today is another online platform promoting Bucharest as a tourist destination. It serves as a comprehensive resource for local and international travelers seeking to learn about the capital city of Romania. The online platform showcases Bucharest's rich history, cultural landmarks, hidden gems, and exciting experiences.

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Healthcare One of the most modern hospitals in the capital is Colțea that has been re-equipped after a 90-million-euro investment in 2011. It specialises in oncological and cardiac disorders. It was built by Mihai Cantacuzino between 1701 and 1703, composed of many buildings, each with 12 to 30 beds, a church, three chapels, a school, and doctors' and teachers' houses.

Another conventional hospital is Pantelimon, which was established in 1733 by Grigore II Ghica. The surface area of the hospital land property was 400,000 m2 (4,305,564 sq ft). The hospital had in its inventory a house for infectious diseases and a house for persons with disabilities.

Other hospitals or clinics are Bucharest Emergency Hospital, Floreasca Emergency Clinic Hospital, Bucharest University Emergency Hospital, and Fundeni Clinical Institute or Biomedica International and Euroclinic, which are private.

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Sport Football is the most widely followed sport in Bucharest, with the city having numerous club teams, including, most notably, Steaua București, Dinamo București, Rapid București and FCSB.

Arena Națională, a new stadium inaugurated on 6 September 2011, hosted the 2012 Europa League Final and has a 55,600-seat capacity, making it one of the largest stadiums in Southeastern Europe and one of the few with a roof.

Sport clubs have formed for handball, water polo, volleyball, rugby union, basketball and ice hockey. The majority of Romanian track and field athletes and most gymnasts are affiliated with clubs in Bucharest. The largest indoor arena in Bucharest is the Romexpo Dome with a seating capacity of 40,000. It can be used for boxing, kickboxing, handball and tennis.

Bucharest hosted annual races along a temporary urban track surrounding the Palace of the Parliament, called Bucharest Ring. The Bucharest City Challenge race hosted FIA GT, FIA GT3, British F3, and Logan Cup races. Since 2009, Bucharest has the largest Ferrari Shop in Eastern Europe and the 2nd largest in Europe after Milan shop.

The capital also hosted the international tennis tournaments WTA Bucharest Open and ATP Romanian Open. Ice hockey games are held at the Mihai Flamaropol Arena, which holds 8,000 spectators. Rugby games are held in different locations, but the most modern stadium is Arcul de Triumf Stadium, which is also home to the Romanian national rugby team.

Bucharest hosted the UEFA Euro 2020 championship at the Arena Națională or Bucharest National Arena. The championship took place in 2021, being postponed due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Bucharest, Bucuresti General Municipality, Romania 
<b>Bucharest, Bucuresti General Municipality, Romania</b>
Image: Adobe Stock cristianbalate #258973523

Bucharest is rated Beta + by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) which evaluates and ranks the relationships between world cities in the context of globalisation. Beta level cities are cities that link moderate economic regions to the world economy.

Bucharest was ranked #25 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Bucharest has a population of over 2,151,665 people. Bucharest also forms the centre of the wider Bucharest metropolitan area which has a population of over 2,412,530 people. Bucharest is ranked #111 for startups with a score of 5.014.

To set up a UBI Lab for Bucharest see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Bucharest has links with:

🇺🇸 Alpharetta, USA 🇯🇴 Amman, Jordan 🇹🇷 Ankara, Turkey 🇰🇿 Astana, Kazakhstan 🇬🇷 Athens, Greece 🇺🇸 Athens, USA 🇺🇸 Atlanta, USA 🇨🇳 Beijing, China 🇷🇸 Belgrade, Serbia 🇭🇺 Budapest, Hungary 🇨🇳 Cheongwen, China 🇲🇩 Chișinău, Moldova 🇸🇾 Damascus, Syria 🇺🇸 Detroit, USA 🇩🇪 Hannover, Germany 🇻🇳 Hanoi, Vietnam 🇺🇸 Jersey City, USA 🇺🇦 Kyiv, Ukraine 🇨🇾 Kyrenia, Cyprus 🇳🇬 Lagos, Nigeria 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 London, England 🇵🇭 Manila, Philippines 🇨🇦 Montreal, Canada 🇷🇺 Moscow, Russia 🇨🇾 Nicosia, Cyprus 🇰🇿 Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan 🇫🇷 Paris, France 🇿🇦 Pretoria, South Africa 🇨🇦 Regina, Canada 🇧🇷 São Paulo, Brazil 🇨🇳 Shunyi, China 🇧🇬 Sofia, Bulgaria 🇬🇪 Tbilisi, Georgia 🇦🇱 Tirana, Albania 🇦🇲 Yerevan, Armenia
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | GaWC | Nomad | StartupBlink

  • Arnold André Higuer |

    🇵🇱 🇺🇸 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 Painter/Architect Arnold André Higuer is associated with Bucharest.

Antipodal to Bucharest is: -153.9,-44.417

Locations Near: Bucharest 26.1,44.4167

🇷🇴 Bucureşti 26.1,44.417 d: 0  

🇷🇴 Sector 3 (Bucharest) 26.1,44.433 d: 1.8  

🇷🇴 Sector 2 26.1,44.433 d: 1.8  

🇷🇴 Sector 1 26.103,44.435 d: 2.1  

🇷🇴 Ilfov 26.12,44.61 d: 21.6  

🇷🇴 Giurgiu 25.967,43.9 d: 58.4  

🇷🇴 Ploieşti 26.013,44.947 d: 59.3  

🇧🇬 Ruse 25.95,43.817 d: 67.8  

🇧🇬 Rousse 25.95,43.817 d: 67.8  

🇷🇴 Târgoviște 25.459,44.938 d: 77  

Antipodal to: Bucharest -153.9,-44.417

🇵🇫 Papeete -149.566,-17.537 d: 16998.9  

🇹🇴 Nuku'alofa -175.216,-21.136 d: 16769.3  

🇦🇸 Pago Pago -170.701,-14.279 d: 16306.1  

🇼🇸 Apia -171.76,-13.833 d: 16216.5  

🇺🇸 Hilo -155.089,19.725 d: 12881.8  

🇺🇸 Maui -156.446,20.72 d: 12767.6  

🇺🇸 Maui County -156.617,20.868 d: 12750.5  

🇺🇸 Kahului -156.466,20.891 d: 12748.5  

🇺🇸 Wailuku -156.505,20.894 d: 12748.1  

🇺🇸 Honolulu -157.85,21.3 d: 12696.7  

Bing Map

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