Brooklyn is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States and New York City's most populous borough. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, and the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects it with Staten Island. Brooklyn shares a land border with the borough of Queens, on the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship, high technology start-up firms, post-modern art and design.
Brooklyn's job market is driven by three main factors: the performance of the national and city economy, population flows and the borough's position as a convenient back office for New York's businesses. Forty-four percent of Brooklyn's employed population, or 410,000 people, work in the borough; more than half of the borough's residents work outside its boundaries. As a result, economic conditions in Manhattan are important to the borough's jobseekers. Strong international immigration to Brooklyn generates jobs in services, retailing and construction.
Since the late 20th century, Brooklyn has benefited from a steady influx of financial back office operations from Manhattan, the rapid growth of a high-tech and entertainment economy in the DUMBO neighbourhood,(Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass) and strong growth in support services such as accounting, personal supply agencies, and computer services firms.
Brooklyn has shifted from a manufacturing-based to a service-based economy. In 2004, 215,000 Brooklyn residents worked in the services sector, while 27,500 worked in manufacturing. A substantial manufacturing base has remained in apparel and niche manufacturing concerns such as furniture, fabricated metals, and food products. New light-manufacturing concerns packaging organic and high-end food have sprung up in the old Pfizer plant.
Tenants of the Brooklyn Navy Yard include industrial design firms, food processing businesses, artisans, and the film and television production industry. About 230 private-sector firms providing 4,000 jobs are at the Yard.
Construction and services are the fastest growing sectors. Most employers in Brooklyn are small businesses. In 2000, 91% of the approximately 38,704 business establishments in Brooklyn had fewer than 20 employees. Brooklyn is also home to many banks and credit unions. According to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, there were 37 banks and 26 credit unions operating in the borough. The rezoning of Downtown Brooklyn has generated over US$10 billion of private investment and $300 million in public improvements since 2004. Brooklyn is also attracting numerous high technology start-up companies, as Silicon Alley, the metonym for New York City's entrepreneurship ecosystem, has expanded from Lower Manhattan into Brooklyn.
Brooklyn has a population of over 2,648,403 people. Brooklyn also forms part of the wider New York metropolitan area which has a population of over 19,795,791 people.