Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan Province, Borneo, Indonesia

Early history | Colonial era | 20th century–present | Geography | Economy : Industry | Tourist Industry | Finance | Education | Healthcare | Banjarese culture | City parks | Others | Transport | Media

🇮🇩 Banjarmasin is a city and the capital of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. It is located on a delta island near the junction of the Barito and Martapura rivers. Historically the centre of Banjarese culture and the capital of the Sultanate of Banjar, it is the biggest city in South Kalimantan and one of main cities of Kalimantan. Greater Banjarmasin, also known as Banjarbakula, is an urban agglomeration which includes Banjarbaru, parts of Banjar Regency, Barito Kuala Regency, and Tanah Laut Regency and accounts for almost half of the province's population. It is the third most populous city on the island of Borneo after Samarinda and Balikpapan, and the most populous officially recognised metropolitan area on the entire island.

Banjarmasin was the de jure seat of the South Kalimantan governor and the location of the provincial parliament, although some provincial buildings have been relocated to Banjarbaru. On 15 February 2022, the capital of South Kalimantan province was legally moved to Banjarbaru.

Early history European archeologist H. Kupper discovered several prehistoric sites around the region in 1939 and found implements such as choppers and other stone tools. Most of the artifacts found around the region and the province show signs of Neolithic culture. Migration from mainland Asia to Borneo may have been common while they were connected by the Sunda Shelf. Many stone tools have been found in Awang Bangkal, 50 km (31 mi) from the city.

Until the early 15th century, there were few written records found from the region. Outside records indicate it was home to several kingdoms such as Tanjungpuri—theorized to have been founded by Malay people from Srivijaya—and Negara Daha and Dipa, which were founded by Javanese people from Majapahit. Hinduism and Buddhism entered the region between the first and 15th centuries. There are two candis (temples) left in the region, Candi Laras and Candi Agung. The Ma'anyan people may have ruled the oldest kingdom in the archipelago, Nan Sarunai. Its existence is disputed; speculated by archeologists based on several carved stone tombs and a Ma'anyan folk song called "Usak Jawa", which is thought to tell the story of the Majapahit conquest of the kingdom.

The history of Banjarmasin itself began during the founding of the Sultanate of Banjar. According to folk stories and the Hikayat Banjar, Sukarama, the fourth king of Negara Daha, wanted his grandson, Raden Samudra, to be his successor in the kingdom instead of his direct son Prince Tumenggung. Prince Tumenggung later banished Raden Samudra and tried to reclaim the throne for himself. Raden Samudra fled to the region that would later be known as Banjarmasin. There, he met Patih Masih. Under Samudra's leadership, the port grew into the town of Bandar Masih. Tumenggung, who disliked Samudra's growing power, wanted to invade the town. Samudra allied with the Demak Sultanate, which agreed to help him. In return he would have to convert to Islam if he won. With the help of expeditionary forces from Demak, Samudra defeated the Tumenggung forces and proclaimed the Banjar Sultanate. He changed his name to Sultan Suriansyah I. The sultanate became more reliant on the Demak to the point that it was considered their protectorate. However, between 1546 and 1550, as conquests and the spice trade enriched the sultanate, it became independent and stopped sending tributes to Java.

Colonial era Engagement between Banjarese kotta mara (floating fortress) against Dutch steam ship Celebes, 6 August 1859

The first contact between Europeans and the Banjar people in the region came through trade. Starting in 1596, this mostly took place in Banten. European traders, largely Dutch, did not bother visiting the port until Banten's rulers banned them. The traders resorted to attacking ships from other countries, including ships under the Banjar Sultanate, to steal nutmeg. The Sultan took revenge against a Dutch ship visiting Banjarmasin on 17 July 1607 by hijacking it and massacring the crew. Similar incidents occurred several times between 1603 and 1636, ending when the sultanate reached a trade agreement that put the Dutch East India Company in control of the nutmeg trade from the sultanate and gave it a monopoly over trade in Banjarmasin. The company was expelled in 1638, however, after the sultan waged a war against the Dutch and burned much of the company's possessions around the port.

Similarly, an English company agreed upon a treaty with the sultanate in 1698 but was expelled from the region in 1707. The region was under British control after the Napoleonic Wars, but the British ceded it the Dutch East Indies Company under the Treaty of London. A succession crisis between Sultan Adam and Tamjidillah II and a dispute over resource control of coal mines resulted in a war between the sultanate and the Dutch East Indies Company which led to the end of the sultanate in 1863. The war continued until 1905 under an emergency government set up by the sultanate called Pagustian. The last resistance was put down with the capture of Queen Zaleha in 1906. As a result of the war, many Banjar people from Borneo migrated to Sumatra, Singapore, and Malaysia and formed communities there.

20th century–present When World War II broke out, the city was occupied by the Imperial Japanese Army. After the Battle of Banjarmasin, control was transferred to the Imperial Japanese Navy. Locals described Japanese rule under the navy as harsher compared to the army. This led many people to escape to Java, which remained under army rule. The city was liberated by Australian forces in September 1945. The return of Dutch rule, however, was opposed by the people and resulted in the Kalimantan Physical Revolution, four years of war between Indonesian nationalists and the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army. This ended with the Dutch recognition of Indonesia in 1949. The city was briefly assigned as the capital of Great Dayak federal state before being absorbed into a single Kalimantan province. It later became the capital city of the newly formed South Kalimantan province. Frequent flooding led to a plan to relocate the provincial capital city to Banjarbaru. The process continued until 2011, and the provincial parliament remains in Banjarmasin. Banjarmasin was granted city status by the Indonesian government in 1959 under Law Number 27 of 1959.

On 7 December 1996, Dirgantara Air Service Flight 5940 crashed to the gas factory after taking off near Syamsudin Noor International Airport, killing around 18 people. On 23 May 1997, the city witnessed a riot caused by friction between supporters of the United Development Party and Golkar. The riot later developed into looting, which targeted Chinese and Christian minorities and several shopping malls. At least least 137 people were killed during the riots. The riot today is known by locals as Jumat Kelabu or Grey Friday.

On 15 February 2022, the capital of South Kalimantan province was legally moved to Banjarbaru.

Geography Banjarmasin is located in the Barito River's basin and is bisected by the Martapura River. The slope of the city is 0.13% and the land is generally flat and low-lying. The geological foundation of the city is dominated by clay and sandstone, but also includes alluvial sediments from the river. Several smaller rivers, all connected to either the Martapura River or Barito River, form a dendritic drainage pattern. The city's river system is affected by tides. The city is located in a swampy region and is generally below water level, making it prone to being flooded by tidal bores.

The area of city proper is 98.46 km² (38.02 sq mi), around 0.26% of the provincial area. It borders the Barito Kuala Regency in the north and west and the Banjar Regency in the east and south.

Economy The city's economy is dominated by manufacturing, which accounts for 17.19% of its gross regional product (GRP) as of 2020. The second largest sector is trade, which accounts for 12.57% of the city's GRP, followed by the finance sector at 12.29%. The agriculture sector is small, contributing only 2.43% of city's GRP. Mining is nonexistent within the city, in stark contrast to neighbouring regions. In 2019, economic growth was 6.38%. However, in 2020 there was an economic downturn caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in a decrease of 1.91%. The city imports 1,900,000 long tons (1,900,000 t) of goods through its main port, the Port of Trisakti, and exports 98,320,000 long tons (99,900,000 t) of goods as of 2019. Movement of goods increased 92.24% between 2018 and 2019. Banjarmasin experienced 4.15% yearly inflation in 2019.

Economy: Industry Around 62% of industry in Banjarmasin is focused on food and drink processing and related products. This includes bread, flour, and soybean sauce production. Other industries include rubber and plastic manufacturing, which account for about 15% of the city's industrial output. The rest of the industrial output is from machinery, pharmaceuticals, paper products, and electrical equipment.

There are 3,014 industrial companies registered in the city as of 2020, employing a total of 22,063 people. There are also smaller-scale industries producing wood furniture, clothing, and snacks, with 88 registered smaller-scale businesses in these sectors as of 2020.

Tourist Industry The city has 129 hotels registered as of 2020. The city was visited by 109,653 domestic tourists and 251 foreign tourists that year. According to Statistics Indonesia, in 2020 there were 113 identified potential tourist spots in the city. Tourism, however, remains a small sector in the city's economy.

Finance The finance sector in general has been grew steadily from 2015 to 2019, with an annual growth of around 3%. Basic financial services account for 67% of this sector, followed by pension funds and insurance services with 14.94%. The city accounts for 67.61% of financial activities in the entire province, both in local and foreign currencies.

Education The literacy rate in 2020 was 98.94%. There are 311 kindergartens, 208 elementary schools, 35 junior high schools, and 29 senior high schools as of 2020. There are also 22 vocational high schools in the city. The city is home to more than 25 higher education institutions and universities. One of the most notable, which is also a public university, is the Lambung Mangkurat University. The university has more than 2,000 graduates every year—most of them majoring in teaching and science education, followed by economics and business, engineering, agricultural science, and medical subjects. In 2020, there were 700 postgraduate students. A developed education system and the existence of educational institutions attract students from neighbouring regions to pursue their education in the city. Other notable private universities, such as the Muhammad Arsyad Al-Banjari Kalimantan Islamic University, have the greatest number of students. According to Indonesian Statistics, in 2020 there 11,854 male and 8,189 female students. The school participation rate was 97.91% as of 2020.

Healthcare The city has eight hospitals and 34 polyclinics as of 2020. There are also 26 puskesmas (community healthcare centres), 26 healthcare centres, and 47 pharmacies. The main and largest hospital in the city is Ulin Regional Hospital, which is owned by the provincial government; it is classified as an A-type hospital by the Ministry of Health. Life expectancy in the city as of 2020 was 71.13 years, which is significantly above the provincial average.

As of 2020, 511,118 people of the total city population of 657,663 are registered in the BPJS Kesehatan, government-mandated social insurance which covers certain healthcare costs. 89% of newborn babies in 2020 were vaccinated with basic vaccines such as polio vaccine, MMR vaccine, and Hepatitis B vaccine. Around 95% of newborn babies are born inside a healthcare or maternity facility, while 99.98% of births are assisted by healthcare workers.

Banjarese culture The city's dominant culture is that of the Banjar people, which have characteristics described as those of a "river culture" and are influenced by other ethnicities such as Dayak, Javanese, Malay, Arab, and even Persian. Despite being a Muslim majority, the Banjar people still hold on to the importance of cultural parts that have been influenced by their Hindu-Buddhist past. This includes the Malanuh ceremony, which is an offering to supernatural beings. One annual event that is celebrated widely by the people of the city is Haul Guru Sekumpul, an event commemorating the death of a charismatic ulema from the region, Zaini Abdul Ghani.

Another famous cultural sight in the city is a floating market located on the Kuin River and Lok Baintan. People meet on the river after Fajr prayer until around 07:00 pm and transactions with the merchants are done from small boats. Small snacks, vegetables, fruits, meat, and many other groceries are sold at the market. This market is dying, however, and the number of merchants has declined because of the shift from river culture to land culture and competition with regular land markets. The city is home to a cultural centre building surrounded by a cultural park where traditional artists can often be seen performing. The building and its surrounding has been used regularly to hold cultural events to preserve Banjarese culture, as well as to facilitate local artists.

City parks There are several city parks and public spaces in the city, one of the most notable being Siring Park, located in the centre of the city. Sometimes referred to by locals as "0 Kilometer Park", the park is located on the shores of the Martapura River and also acts as a waterfront for the river with docks for small boats in the river. Facilities in the park include a watchtower, several gazebos, pedestrian roads, and skateboard parks. In front of the park, there is an urban bus stop used by both Trans Banjarmasin & BRT Banjarbakula bus companies. In addition, the park includes one of the city's landmarks, a 6.5 m (21 ft) statue of a bekantan (Proboscis monkey) which is a native primate in the region. The park is also a centre for street foods in the city during dusk.

Other city parks include Kamboja Park, Bungas Banjarmasin Park, and Banua Anyar Public Space. Located 2 km (1.2 mi) from the city centre, Banua Anyar Public Space is specifically designed for toddlers and kids. It is located below Banua Anyar bridge and has facilities such as a kids' park, artificial soft grass to ensure child safety, and book reading corners.

Others Several shopping malls are located in the city. The Duta Mall Banjarmasin is the largest in the province, and connected to a hotel called The Mercure Hotel. Located in Central Banjarmasin district, it occupies more than 42,000 m2 (450,000 sq ft) and consists of four stories. It is also surrounded by several other buildings housing stores, forming a complex with a total area of 80,000 m2 (860,000 sq ft). Other entertainment centres in the city include Trans Studio Mini Banjarmasin, an indoor theme park which is owned by Trans Corp and malls such as Mitra Plaza, Lotte Mart, and Giant. Mitra Plaza is one of the city's oldest modern shopping centres, and was a target of looting and destruction during the Banjarmasin riot of May 1997. It was renovated after the riot. Other than modern shopping malls, according to Statistics Indonesia, as of 2019, there are 60 traditional markets registered in the city.

Transport The city has 790.13 km (490.96 mi) of road, most of which have been paved with asphalt. It is connected to the Trans-Kalimantan Highway Southern Route, which connects it to other big cities such as Palangka Raya and Samarinda. Kilometer 6 Bus Terminal is the main bus terminal for the city and the province, where buses for long inter-province routes gather. Being old and overcrowded, the government relocated the main terminal to the newly built Kilometer 17 Bus Terminal in Gambut District, Banjar Regency. However, the new terminal is rarely used and many bus operators resisted the relocation because of the remoteness of the new terminal from the city center.

Being divided by a big navigable river, speed boats on the river are also an important means of transportation within the city. Ride-hailing services such as Gojek and Grab are widespread. The city has three urban bus services, BRT Banjarbakula which connects it to the Greater Banjarmasin area and Trans Banjarmasin, which only serves the city proper. As with other Indonesian cities, the city has angkots (shared taxis), which have been declining rapidly because of competition from online ride-hailing services, online taxis, and new public transportation services created by the city government. On 22 December 2021, another urban bus system, Trans Banjarbakula, was launched which also covers the entire metropolitan area.

The city is served by the Port of Trisakti, which is one of main ports in Indonesia and classified as class IA. The port has a passenger terminal for passenger ships to neighbouring islands such as Java and Sulawesi. The closest airport is the Syamsudin Noor International Airport, which located inside Banjarbaru city, 29 km (18 mi) from Banjarmasin.

Media There are numerous newspapers, television stations, and radio based in Banjarmasin. The city is centre of mass media in the province of South Kalimantan. Known established media groups such as Banjarmasin Post, Kalimantan Post, and Radar Banjarmasin existed since early New Order period, while numerous smaller independent media were founded mostly after Reformasi. Other example of news media are Barito Post, Mata Banua, Metro Banjar, and Kanal Kalimantan. In total, there were 47 registered news media including printed and online, 36 tabloids, and 4 magazines in the city.

In television sector, outside of nationwide networks both private and state-owned, there are local television stations focused mostly on local news. State-owned television network TVRI has local branch for South Kalimantan located in Banjarmasin, while Duta TV and Banjar TV, two most prominent local channels, are private.

The city also has a branch of Radio Republik Indonesia, an Indonesian state-owned radio network. According to the government source, there are 21 formally registered radio station.

Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan Province, Borneo, Indonesia 
<b>Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan Province, Borneo, Indonesia</b>
Image: Halim Drone

Banjarmasin has a population of over 625,395 people. Banjarmasin also forms part of the Greater Banjarmasin metropolitan area which has a population of over 1,924,427 people.

To set up a UBI Lab for Banjarmasin see: Twitter:

Twin Towns - Sister Cities Banjarmasin has links with:

🇧🇷 Manaus, Brazil
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license

North of: -3.317

🇨🇩 Bandundu -3.317

🇪🇨 Machala -3.267

🇧🇷 Viana -3.22

🇰🇪 Malindi -3.216

🇧🇷 Altamira -3.195

🇧🇷 Itacoatiara -3.143

🇧🇷 Manaus -3.11

🇮🇩 Piru -3.059

🇧🇷 Paragominas -2.983

🇮🇩 Palembang -2.97

East of: 114.583

🇨🇳 Zhoukou 114.635

🇨🇳 Yuancheng 114.683

🇨🇳 Héyuán 114.7

🇨🇳 Zhangbei 114.75

🇮🇩 Banjarbaru 114.817

🇨🇳 Ezhou 114.833

🇮🇩 Martapura 114.833

🇨🇳 Huanggang 114.872

🇨🇳 Huangzhou 114.879

🇲🇳 Choibalsan 114.879

West of: 114.583

🇨🇳 Zhengding 114.561

🇨🇳 Shahe 114.503

🇨🇳 Xingtai 114.489

🇨🇳 Shijiazhuang 114.479

🇨🇳 Handan 114.467

🇨🇳 Yichun 114.417

🇨🇳 Hongshan 114.407

🇨🇳 Huizhou 114.396

🇨🇳 Anyang 114.392

🇮🇩 Banyuwangi 114.367

Antipodal to Banjarmasin is: -65.417,3.317

Locations Near: Banjarmasin 114.583,-3.31667

🇮🇩 Banjarbaru 114.817,-3.433 d: 29  

🇮🇩 Martapura 114.833,-3.45 d: 31.5  

🇮🇩 Tanjung 115.5,-2.5 d: 136.4  

🇮🇩 Palangka Raya 113.917,-2.2 d: 144.5  

🇮🇩 Balikpapan 116.823,-1.278 d: 336.6  

🇮🇩 Sumenep 113.859,-7.006 d: 418  

🇮🇩 Samarinda 117.145,-0.496 d: 423.6  

🇮🇩 Bangkalan 112.752,-7.025 d: 459.5  

🇮🇩 Gresik 112.65,-7.15 d: 477  

🇮🇩 Surabaya 112.733,-7.233 d: 481.3  

Antipodal to: Banjarmasin -65.417,3.317

🇻🇪 Puerto Ayacucho -66.617,5.65 d: 19723.5  

🇨🇴 Puerto Carreño -67.489,6.188 d: 19621.8  

🇧🇷 Boa Vista -60.671,2.819 d: 19485.3  

🇻🇪 San Fernando de Apure -67.47,7.893 d: 19457.8  

🇻🇪 Ciudad Bolívar -63.548,8.138 d: 19440.5  

🇻🇪 Ciudad Guayana -62.761,8.295 d: 19388.5  

🇻🇪 Caroní -62.679,8.306 d: 19383  

🇻🇪 Easter Valley -66,9.2 d: 19357.7  

🇻🇪 Valle de la Pascua -66.007,9.214 d: 19356.1  

🇻🇪 Calabozo -67.428,8.922 d: 19353.3  

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