Bandung, West Java Province, Java, Indonesia

History | Geography | Economy | Tourist Industry | Local public and mass transportation

🇮🇩 Bandung is the capital city of the Indonesian province of West Java. It is the fourth most populous city in Indonesia. Greater Bandung (Bandung Basin Metropolitan Area/BBMA) is the country's third-largest metropolitan area. Located 768 metres (2,520 feet) above sea level, the highest point in the North area with an altitude of 1,050 meters and the lowest in the South is 675 meters above sea level, approximately 140 km (87 miles) south-east of Jakarta, Bandung has cooler year-round temperatures than most other Indonesian cities. The city lies on a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains that provides a natural defence system, which was the primary reason for the Dutch East Indies government's plan to move the capital from Batavia (modern-day Jakarta) to Bandung.

The Dutch first established tea plantations around the mountains in the 18th century, and a road was constructed to connect the plantation area to the colonial capital Batavia (180 km (112 miles) to the northwest). In the early 20th century, the Dutch inhabitants of Bandung demanded the establishment of a municipality (gemeente), which was granted in 1906, and Bandung gradually developed into a resort city for plantation owners. Luxurious hotels, restaurants, cafés, and European boutiques were opened, leading the city to be nicknamed Parijs van Java (Dutch: "The Paris of Java").

After Indonesia declared independence in 1945, the city experienced ongoing development and urbanization, transforming from an idyllic town into a dense 16,500 people/km² metropolitan area with living space for over 8 million people. New skyscrapers, high-rise buildings, bridges, and gardens have been constructed. Natural resources have been heavily exploited, particularly by conversion of the protected upland area into highland villas and real estate. Although the city has encountered many problems (ranging from waste disposal and floods to a complicated traffic system resulting from a lack of road infrastructure), it still attracts large numbers of tourists, weekend sightseers, and migrants from other parts of Indonesia. In 2017 the city won a regional environmental sustainability award for having the cleanest air among major cities in ASEAN. The city is also known as a Smart City, leveraging technology to improve government services and social media that alert residents to issues such as floods or traffic jams. Bandung is Indonesia's major technology centre. The city is part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network, which it joined in 2015.

The first Asian-African Conference, the Bandung Conference, was hosted in Bandung by President Sukarno in 1955. Redevelopment of the existing Husein Sastranegara International Airport (BDO) was completed in 2016. To improve infrastructure, the construction of the Jakarta-Bandung high-speed rail was started in 2016 and was projected to be completed in 2021. This was to be complemented by an indigenous type of Automated People Mover (APM) and Light Rail Transit (LRT). The new larger second airport, Bandung Kertajati International Airport (KJT), opened in June 2018, just in time for the 2018 Asian Games.

History The official name of the city during the colonial Dutch East Indies period was Bandoeng. The earliest reference to the area dates back to 1488, although archaeological findings suggest a type of Homo erectus species had long previously lived on the banks of the Cikapundung River and around the old lake of Bandung. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) established plantations in the Bandung area. In 1786, a supply road connecting Batavia (now Jakarta), Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang and Cirebon was constructed. In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte, French Emperor and conqueror of much of Europe, including the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to improve the defensive systems of Java to protect against the British in India. Daendels built a road stretching approximately 1,000 km (620 mi) from the west to the east coast of Java, passing through Bandung. In 1810, the road was laid down in Bandung and was named De Groote Postweg (or the 'Great Post Road'), the present-day location of Jalan Asia-Afrika. Under Daendels' orders, R. A. Wiranatakusumah II, the Chief Administrator of the Bandung regency at that time, moved the office from Krapyak, in the south, to a place near a pair of holy city wells (sumur Bandung), the present-day site of the city square (alun-alun). He built his dalem (palace), masjid agung (the grand mosque) and pendopo (public-official meeting place) in the classical Sundanese orientation, with the pendopo facing Tangkuban Perahu mountain, which was believed to have a mystical ambience. In 1856, Bandung also became the capital of the Preanger Regencies Residency, which it would remain until 1925.

In 1880, the first major railroad between Batavia and Bandung was completed, boosting the light industry in Bandung. Chinese flocked into the city to help run facilities, services and vendors. The area adjacent to the train station is still recognisable as the old Chinatown district. In 1906, Bandung was given the status of gemeente (municipality), and then twenty years later, stadsgemeente (city municipality).

Beginning of time the early 1920s, the Dutch East Indies government made plans to move their capital from Batavia to Bandung. Accordingly, during this decade, the Dutch colonial government commenced construction of military barracks, the building housing the colonial Department of State-Owned Enterprises (Department van Gouvernmentsbedrijven, the present-day Gedung Sate) and other government buildings. However, this plan was cut short by World War II, after which the Dutch were not able to re-establish their colony due to the Indonesian Declaration of Independence.

The fertile area of the Parahyangan Mountains surrounding Bandung supports productive tea plantations. In the nineteenth century, Franz Junghuhn introduced the cinchona (kina) plant. With its cooler elevated landscape, surrounded by major plantations, Bandung became an exclusive European resort area. Wealthy plantation owners visited the city on weekends, attracting ladies and business people from the capital, Batavia. Jalan Braga grew into a promenade street with cafés, restaurants and boutique shops. Two art-deco style hotels, Savoy Homann and Preanger, were built in the vicinity of the Concordia Society, a clubhouse for the wealthy with a large ballroom and a theatre.

After Indonesian independence in 1945, Bandung was designated as the capital of West Java province. During the Indonesian National Revolution, some of the most massive battles occurred in and around Bandung. Dutch troops were virtually absent in Java at the end of World War II. To assist the restoration of Dutch sovereignty, the British took a military hold on Java's major cities, and the British military commander set an ultimatum for the Indonesian combatants in Bandung to leave the city. In response, on 24 March 1946, much of the southern part of Bandung was deliberately set alight as the combatants left; an event known as Bandung Lautan Api or the 'Bandung Sea of Fire'.

In 1955, the first Asian-African Conference, also known as the Bandung Conference, was hosted in Bandung by President Sukarno and attended by the heads of states representing twenty-nine independent countries from Asia and Africa. The conference venue was at the Gedung Merdeka, the former Concordia Society building. The conference announced ten points of declaration for the promotion of world peace and opposition against colonialism and is known as the Declaration of Bandung. This was followed by a wave of nationalism and decolonisation movements around the globe which remapped world politics. The conference was also the first international conference of people of colour in history. In his book The Color Curtain, Richard Wright claims that there was an epic meaning to the conference for people of colour around the world.

In 1987, the city boundary was expanded by the 'Greater Bandung' (Bandung Raya) plan, with the relocation of higher concentration development zones outside the city in an attempt to dilute population density in the old city. During this development, the city core was often uprooted, with old buildings torn down, lot sizes regrouped and rezoned, changing idyllic residential areas to commercial zones with bustling chain supermarkets, malls, banks and upscale developments.

In 2005, an Asian-African Conference was partly held in Bandung, attended by world leaders including Indonesian President Susilo B. Yudhoyono, President of China Hu Jintao, Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh, President of South Africa Thabo Mbeki and President of Nigeria Obasanjo.

Geography Bandung, the capital of West Java province, is located about 180 km (110 mi) south-east of Jakarta. Its elevation is 768 metres (2,520 ft) above sea level and is surrounded by up to 2,400 metres (7,900 feet) high Late Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic terrain. The 400 km² flat of central Bandung plain is situated in the middle of 2,340.88 square km (903.82 sq mi) wide of the Bandung Basin; the basin comprises Bandung, the Cimahi city, part of Bandung Regency, part of West Bandung Regency, and part of Sumedang Regency. The basin's main river is the Citarum; one of its branches, the Cikapundung, divides Bandung from north to south before it merges with Citarum again in Dayeuhkolot. The Bandung Basin is an essential source of water for potable water, irrigation, and fisheries, with its 6,147 million m3 (217.1 billion cu ft) of groundwater being a significant reservoir for the city. The northern section of Bandung is hillier than other parts of the city, and the unique truncated flat-peak shape of the Tangkuban Perahu volcano (Tangkuban Perahu literally means 'upside-down boat') can be seen from the city to the north. Long-term volcanic activity has created fertile andisol soil in the north, suitable for intensive rice, fruit, tea, tobacco, and coffee plantations. In the south and east, alluvial soils deposited by the Cikapundung river predominate.

Geological data shows that the Bandung Basin is located on an ancient volcano, known as Mount Sunda, erected up to 3,000–4,000 metres (9,800–13,100 feet) during the Pleistocene age. Two large-scale eruptions took place; the first formed the basin, and the second (est. 55,000 BCE) blocked the Citarum river, turning the basin into a lake known as "the Great Prehistoric Lake of Bandung". The lake drained away; for reasons which are the subject of ongoing debate among geologists.

Economy The city's economy is mainly built upon tourism, business, creative industry, high-tech and manufacturing industries, educational institutions, technology, retail services, financial services, pharmaceutical companies, and food production. The once quiet residential district of Dago has become an important business and entertainment centre with chic cafés and restaurants spread out along Jalan Dago. In the early 1990s, Jalan Cihampelas became a popular clothing store location and remains so today.

Creative culture has shaped specific parts of the city's economy. Small businesses, known as "distro", sell non-trademarked products made by local designers. Typical distro products are books, indie label records, magazines, fashion products, and other accessories. Distros are popular with young people and distance themselves from factory outlets in terms of philosophy. They arise from individual designers and young entrepreneurs, while factory outlet products generally come from large-scale garment factories.

The city administration has agreed to substantially develop seven industrial and trade areas for Bandung speciality products. These include Binong Jati Knitting Industrial and Trade Center, Cigondewah Textile Trade Center, Cihampelas Jeans Trade Center, Suci (T and Oblong) Shirt Industrial Center, Cibaduyut Shoes Industrial Center, Cibuntu Tofu and Tempeh Industrial Center, Sukamulya Sukajadi Doll Industrial Center.

Tourist Industry Bandung is a popular weekend destination for residents of Jakarta. The colder climate of the highland plantation area, variety of food, less expensive fashion shops located in factory outlets and distros, golf courses, and the zoo, are some of the attractions of the city. Bandung is also a popular shopping destination due to the cheap textile and fashion products, especially for Malaysian and Singaporean tourists.

In the 1990s, local designers opened denim clothing stores along Jalan Cihampelas, which was transformed into a "jeans street". The city attracts people from other big cities to buy local fashion wares, as they are cheaper than branded items. Beside Jalan Cihampelas, many factory outlets also opened at Jalan Riau, Jalan Setiabudi, and Jalan Djuanda (known as Dago). Textile factories on the outskirts of Bandung have opened factory outlets on site selling what is marketed as sisa export (rejected or over-produced export quality items). Trans Studio Mall, Bandung Indah Plaza, Cihampelas Walk, Paris Van Java Mall and 23 Paskal Shopping Center are among the popular shopping centres in Bandung.

Significant tourist sites near Bandung include the Tangkuban Prahu volcano crater to the north, the Kawah Putih volcano lake, and Patenggang Lake, a lake surrounded by tea plantations about 50 km (31 miles) to the south of the city.

To view the Bandung Basin clearly in its mountain surroundings, visitors travel to the Bongkor protected forest area (kawasan hutan lindung), Saung Daweung and Arcamanik; to the slopes of West Manglayang Mountain in an area known as Caringin Tilu, with entry from Padasuka and Cicaheum to the north. The forest is located in 1,500 metres (4,900 feet) above sea level and is covered with pine trees managed by a government corporation Perhutani and can be accessed with 30 minutes drive from downtown. Visitors going to the north of the city also find Taman Hutan Raya Ir. H. Djuanda. The Cicaheum area also hosts Bukit Moko, a tourist spot famous for its views and its steel statue of a giant star called Puncak Bintang. Bandung has several museums that should be visited by tourists, such as the Geological Museum of Bandung, the Indonesia Postal Museum, Sri Baduga Museum, and the Asian-African Conference Museum. The city government operates Bandros, a tourist bus, since 2014.

Local public and mass transportation Taxis and Online transport are widely available. The primary means of public transportation is by angkot minibuses (from angkutan, "transportation" and kota, "city"); angkot are privately operated and serve multiple routes throughout the city, and although cheap, they are considered basic and uncomfortable. To find exact angkot routes, passengers may look for information available through the drivers or at terminals.

Due to the current extent of railway lines in Bandung, only two named regional railway services, Lokal Bandung Raya and Lokal Garut Cibatuan, are serving the city, serving a single line. It catered for the suburban areas east and west of the city such as Cimahi, Padalarang, Rancaekek, Cicalengka, as well as some other neighbouring towns such as Garut and Purwakarta. KAI Commuter took over the operations of both services from its mother company KAI in 2022, anticipating planned electrification of the route by Ministry of Transport.

Public buses in Bandung and its surrounding urban area are operated by various operators, with a total 16 bus lines currently operating. DAMRI buses used to dominate as the main bus operator serving the city and its surrounding metropolitan area, first operating in the 1970s, with at some point operating more than 10 routes. However, it collapsed in October 2021, leaving 5 routes still operating. Following the example of TransJakarta, the city government introduced its own BRT system called Trans Metro Bandung on 24 September 2009. By 2022 it served 5 trunk corridors and 1 feeder routes. Both DAMRI and Trans Metro Bandung buses uses higher deck buses similar to TransJakarta, but could be stopped anywhere along its route and do not run separately from traffic. Provincial government of West Java also operates a bus route called as Safe and Healthy Bus Rapid Transit (shortened Buratas), serving only a single line. As part of nationwide bus services modernisation program called as Teman Bus, a more disciplined system branded as Trans Metro Pasundan was introduced by central government's Ministry of Transportation in December 2021. Two operators, Big Bird (part of Blue Bird Group) and DAMRI operated 5 routes inherited from former DAMRI routes under a contract with Ministry of Transport. Introduction of new bus routes in Bandung often faced resistance from angkots and extortion attempts by so-called local patrons due to perception that their revenues being stolen, leading to blockades and verbal threats against bus drivers. Due to fragmentation of brands and operators, passengers must pay again when transiting to other BRT lines or to other modes such as trains.

A more comprehensive plan to revitalise the bus system will be implemented in 2024, extending from the Trans Metro Pasundan project. It would integrate all operators within a single system called BRT Bandung Raya, with proper Bus Rapid Transit features such as dedicated lanes, frequent bus availability and bus stops. The planned system intended to use electric powered buses, both imported and locally produced.

Bandung city government also operated a fleet of city tour buses called as Bandung Tour on Bus (shortened Bandros).

Boseh is a dock-based bicycle-sharing system provided by the Transport Service (Dinas Perhubungan) of Bandung.

Bandung, West Java Province, Java, Indonesia 
<b>Bandung, West Java Province, Java, Indonesia</b>
Image: F1fans

Bandung is rated Climate by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) which evaluates and ranks the relationships between world cities in the context of globalisation.

Bandung was ranked #478 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Bandung has a population of over 2,575,478 people. Bandung also forms the centre of the Greater Bandung metropolitan area which has a population of over 8,598,822 people. It is also a part of the larger West Java Province. Bandung is ranked #368 for startups with a score of 0.638.

To set up a UBI Lab for Bandung see: https://www.ubilabnetwork.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBILabNetwork

Bandung is a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network for Design see: https://en.unesco.org/creative-cities

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Bandung has links with:

🇰🇿 Almaty, Kazakhstan 🇩🇪 Braunschweig, Germany 🇵🇭 Cotabato City, Philippines 🇰🇷 Daejeon, South Korea 🇰🇷 Daejon, South Korea 🇺🇸 Fort Worth, USA 🇯🇵 Hamamatsu, Japan 🇨🇳 Hangzhou, China 🇯🇵 Hiramatsu, Japan 🇲🇾 Kuantan, Malaysia 🇲🇾 Kuching, Malaysia 🇨🇳 Liuzhou, China 🇧🇪 Namur, Belgium 🇮🇩 Pekanbaru, Indonesia 🇲🇾 Petaling Jaya, Malaysia 🇰🇷 Suwon, South Korea 🇨🇳 Tianjin, China 🇹🇭 Udon Thani, Thailand 🇨🇳 Yingkou, China
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | GaWC | Nomad | StartupBlink

Antipodal to Bandung is: -72.429,6.877

Locations Near: Bandung 107.571,-6.87673

🇮🇩 Cimahi 107.555,-6.871 d: 1.9  

🇮🇩 Padalarang 107.478,-6.844 d: 10.9  

🇮🇩 Ngamprah 107.483,-6.817 d: 11.8  

🇮🇩 Purwakarta 107.433,-6.55 d: 39.4  

🇮🇩 Subang 107.75,-6.567 d: 39.7  

🇮🇩 Karawang 107.283,-6.3 d: 71.6  

🇮🇩 Sukabumi 106.926,-6.921 d: 71.4  

🇮🇩 Majalengka 108.228,-6.834 d: 72.7  

🇮🇩 Singaparna 108.11,-7.35 d: 79.4  

🇮🇩 Cileungsir 106.98,-6.403 d: 83.9  

Antipodal to: Bandung -72.429,6.877

🇨🇴 Pamplona -72.65,7.367 d: 19955.4  

🇨🇴 Piedecuesta -73,7.083 d: 19948  

🇨🇴 Bucaramanga -73.12,7.117 d: 19934.3  

🇻🇪 San Cristóbal -72.221,7.776 d: 19912.5  

🇨🇴 Cúcuta -72.5,7.883 d: 19902.9  

🇨🇴 Sogamoso -72.917,5.717 d: 19875.3  

🇨🇴 Barrancabermeja -73.85,7.067 d: 19856.8  

🇨🇴 Yopal -72.406,5.347 d: 19844.9  

🇨🇴 Tunja -73.367,5.533 d: 19833.3  

🇨🇴 Ocaña -73.35,8.233 d: 19833.3  

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