🇷🇴 Alba Iulia is a city that serves as the seat of Alba County in the west-central part of Romania. Located on the Mureș River in the historical region of Transylvania.
Since the High Middle Ages, the city has been the seat of Transylvania's Roman Catholic diocese. Between 1541 and 1690 it was the capital of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom and the latter Principality of Transylvania. At one point it also was a centre of Eastern Orthodox Metropolitan of Transylvania with suffragan to Vad diocese. Alba Iulia is historically important for Romanians, Hungarians, and Transylvanian Saxons. In December 2018, Alba Iulia was officially declared Capital of the Great Union of Romania.
The city administers four villages: Bărăbanț (Borbánd), Micești (Ompolykisfalud), Oarda (Alsóváradja) and Pâclișa (Poklos).
The main historical area of Alba Iulia is the Upper Town region, developed by Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor in honour of whom the Habsburgs renamed the city Karlsburg. The fortress, with seven bastions in a stellar shape, was constructed between 1716 and 1735 by two Swiss fortification architects. The first was Giovanni Morandi Visconti, who built two old Italian-style bastions. The second was Nicolaus Doxat de Demoret—nicknamed "Austrian Vauban". After 1720, the two architects radically transformed the medieval fortress shaped by the former Roman castrum into a seven-bastion baroque fortress, developing Menno van Coehorn's new Dutch system, of which the fortress of Alba Iulia is the best preserved example.
Alba Iulia has a population of over 63,536 people. Alba Iulia also forms the centre of the wider Alba County which has a population of over 327,224 people.
Twin Towns – Sister Cities Alba Iulia is twinned with: 🇨🇳 Lanzhou, China; 🇬🇷 Aigio, Greece; 🇪🇸 Alcalá de Henares, Spain; 🇮🇹 Alessandria, Italy; 🇩🇪 Arnsberg, Germany; 🇹🇷 Düzce, Turkey; 🇭🇷 Biograd na Moru, Croatia; 🇮🇱 Nof HaGalil, Israel; 🇮🇹 San Benedetto del Tronto, Italy; 🇧🇬 Sliven, Bulgaria; 🇭🇺 Székesfehérvár, Hungary; 🇮🇹 Varese, Italy; 🇲🇩 Chișinău, Moldova.