Alexandria, Egypt

🇪🇬 Alexandria is the third-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre. Alexandria is the largest city on the Mediterranean – also called the "Bride of the Mediterranean" by locals – the fourth-largest city in the Arab world. The city extends about 40 km at the northern coast of Egypt along the Mediterranean Sea. Alexandria is a popular tourist destination, and also an important industrial centre because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez.

The city extends about 40 km (25 mi) at the northern coast of Egypt along the Mediterranean Sea is the second-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, the ninth-largest city in Africa, and a major economic centre. It is the largest city on the Mediterranean, the fourth-largest city in the Arab world, and the ninth-largest urban area in Africa as well as the 79th largest urban area by population on Earth.

The city was founded originally in the vicinity of an Egyptian settlement named Rhacotis (that became the Egyptian quarter of the city). It retained this status for almost a millennium, through the period of Roman and Eastern Roman rule until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641 AD, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo).

Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its Great Library, the largest in the ancient world; and the Necropolis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. Alexandria was the intellectual and cultural centre of the ancient Mediterranean for much of the Hellenistic age and late antiquity. It was at one time the largest city in the ancient world before being eventually overtaken by Rome. The city has Greco-Roman landmarks, old-world cafes, and sandy beaches.

The city was a major centre of early Christianity and was the centre of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, which was one of the major centres of Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire. In the modern world, the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria both lay claim to this ancient heritage. By the time of the Arab conquest of Egypt in 641 AD, the city had already been largely plundered and lost its significance before re-emerging in the modern era. From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major centre of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centres in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea and the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton.

Airports The city's principal airport is currently Borg El Arab Airport, which is located about 25 km (16 mi) away from the city centre.

From late 2011, El Nouzha Airport (Alexandria International Airport) was to be closed to commercial operations for two years as it underwent expansion, with all airlines operating out of Borg El Arab Airport from then onwards, where a brand new terminal was completed there in February 2010. In 2017, the government announced that Alexandria International Airport will shut down permanently and will no longer reopen.

Port Alexandria has four ports; namely the Western Port also known as Alexandria Port, which is the main port of the country that handles about 60% of the country's exports and imports, Dekhela Port west of the Western Port, the Eastern Port which is a yachting harbour, and Abu Qir Port at the northern east of the governorate. It is a commercial port for general cargo and phosphates.

Highways • International Coastal Road (Mersa Matruh – Alexandria – Port Said) • Cairo–Alexandria desert road (Alexandria – Cairo – 220 km (137 mi), 6–8 lanes) • Cairo-Alexandria Agriculture Road (Alexandria – Cairo) • Mehwar El Ta'meer – (Alexandria – Borg El Arab).

Rail Alexandria's intracity commuter rail system extends from Misr Station (Alexandria's primary intercity railway station) to Abu Qir, parallel to the tram line. The commuter line's locomotives operate on diesel, as opposed to the overhead-electric tram.

Alexandria plays host to two intercity railway stations: the aforementioned Misr Station (in the older Manshia district in the western part of the city) and Sidi Gaber railway station (in the district of Sidi Gaber in the centre of the eastern expansion in which most Alexandrines reside), both of which also serve the commuter rail line. Intercity passenger service is operated by Egyptian National Railways.

Trams An extensive tramway network was built in 1860 and is the oldest in Africa. The network begins at the El Raml district in the west and ends in the Victoria district in the east. Most of the vehicles are blue in colour. Some smaller yellow-coloured vehicles have further routes beyond the two main endpoints. The tram routes have one of four numbers: 1, 2, 5, and 6. All four start at El Raml, but only two (1 and 2) reach Victoria. There are two converging and diverging points. The first starts at Bolkly (Isis) and ends at San Stefano. The other begins at Sporting and ends at Mostafa Kamel. Route 5 starts at San Stefano and takes the inner route to Bolkly. Route 6 starts at Sidi Gaber El Sheikh in the outer route between Sporting and Mustafa Kamel. Route 1 takes the inner route between San Stefano and Bolkly and the outer route between Sporting and Mustafa Kamel. Route 2 takes the route opposite to Route 1 in both these areas. The tram fares used to be 50 piastres (0.50 pounds), and 100 piastres (1.00 pounds) for the middle car, but have been doubled sometime in 2019. Some trams (that date back the 30s) charge a pound. The tram is considered the cheapest method of public transport. A café operates in the second floor of the first car of tram 1 (a women-only car) which costs 5 L.E per person, also offering a WiFi service. A luxury light blue tram car operates from San Stefano to Ras El Tin, with free WiFi and movies and songs played inside for 5 L.E per ticket.

Stanley Bridge, Alexandria, Egypt 
Stanley Bridge, Alexandria, Egypt
Image: Adobe Stock evannovostro #248516266

Alexandria is rated Sufficiency by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) which evaluates and ranks the relationships between world cities in the context of globalisation. Sufficiency level cities are cities that have a sufficient degree of services so as not to be overly dependent on world cities.

Alexandria is rated D+ by the Global Urban Competitiveness Report (GUCR) which evaluates and ranks world cities in the context of economic competitiveness. D+ cities are strong regional hub cities. Alexandria was ranked #535 by the Nomad List which evaluates and ranks remote work hubs by cost, internet, fun and safety. Alexandria has a population of over 4,939,000 people. Alexandria also forms the centre of the wider Alexandria metropolitan area which has a population of over 5,381,000 people. Alexandria is ranked #974 for startups with a score of 0.085.

To set up a UBI Lab for Alexandria see: Twitter:

The Climate Emergency means that Alexandria may be at risk of flooding by rising sea levels by 2035

Twin Towns, Sister Cities Alexandria has links with:

🇰🇿 Almaty, Kazakhstan 🇺🇸 Baltimore, USA 🇸🇰 Bratislava, Slovak Republic 🇮🇹 Catania, Italy 🇺🇸 Cleveland, USA 🇷🇴 Constanța, Romania 🇿🇦 Durban, South Africa 🇰🇷 Incheon, South Korea 🇧🇬 Kazanlak, Bulgaria 🇨🇾 Limassol, Cyprus 🇨🇾 Paphos, Cyprus 🇲🇺 Port Louis, Mauritius 🇷🇺 Saint Petersburg, Russia 🇨🇳 Shanghai, China 🇬🇷 Thessaloniki, Greece 🇺🇦 Odesa, Ukraine 🇮🇩 Surabaya, Indonesia 🇫🇷 Marseille, France 🇨🇳 Qingpu District, China 🇨🇳 Changning, China 🇪🇸 Alicante, Spain
Text Atribution: Wikipedia Text under CC-BY-SA license | GaWC | GUCR | Nomad | StartupBlink

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